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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

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Haloacetic acids are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine are added to tap water. The group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards includes monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. Read More.

Haloacetic acids are harmful during pregnancy and may increase the risk of cancer. Haloacetic acids are genotoxic, which means that they induce mutations and DNA damage. Multiple studies by the National Toxicology Program have demonstrated the cancer-causing properties of individual haloacetic acids in laboratory animals. The Department of Health and Human Services is currently considering listing di- or tri-haloacetic acids for possible inclusion in its comprehensive Report on Carcinogens.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.

 

58

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

31

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20123.96 ppb164ND - 23.9 ppb
20136.04 ppb102ND - 32.0 ppb
20141.83 ppb82ND - 13.4 ppb
20159.87 ppb87ND - 25.4 ppb
20166.73 ppb882.83 ppb - 11.2 ppb
201711.9 ppb889.11 ppb - 15.7 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.1 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.1 ppb for the group of five haloacetic acids, or HAA5, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a on-in-a-million lifetime cancer risk level. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 60 ppb

The legal limit for the group of five haloacetic acids (HAA5), established in 1998, was based on the need for residual disinfectant levels in water served to customers and the cost of treatment. This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer and harm to the developing fetus due to exposure to haloacetic acids.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-03-071105217ND
2012-03-071105215ND
2012-03-07110521312.2 ppb
2012-03-0711052115.21 ppb
2012-05-021117761ND
2012-05-021117765ND
2012-05-021117767ND
2012-05-021117769ND
2012-08-221208408ND
2012-08-22120840722.0 ppb
2012-08-22120840623.9 ppb
2012-08-221208405ND
2012-11-211168625ND
2012-11-211168627ND
2012-11-211168629ND
2012-11-211168631ND
2013-02-131187608ND
2013-02-131187607ND
2013-02-131187606ND
2013-02-131187601ND
2013-05-221211464ND
2013-05-22121146732.0 ppb
2013-05-221211466ND
2013-05-221211468ND
2013-11-12125516528.4 ppb
2013-11-121255163ND
2014-02-111276878ND
2014-02-111276876ND
2014-05-131300976ND
2014-05-131300973ND
2014-08-12132555913.4 ppb
2014-08-121325558ND
2014-12-034L04006-021.20 ppb
2014-12-034L04006-01ND
2015-02-255B25089-01ND
2015-02-255B25089-021.31 ppb
2015-05-135E13063-02RE125.4 ppb
2015-05-135E13063-0124.4 ppb
2015-08-055H05120-028.09 ppb
2015-08-055H05120-018.26 ppb
2015-11-185K18128-025.88 ppb
2015-11-185K18128-015.60 ppb
2016-02-106B10104-012.83 ppb
2016-02-106B10104-023.23 ppb
2016-05-116E11116-02RE17.03 ppb
2016-05-116E11116-0111.2 ppb
2016-08-106H10103-026.17 ppb
2016-08-106H10103-0111.1 ppb
2016-11-096K09157-026.93 ppb
2016-11-096K09157-015.38 ppb
2017-02-157B15129-0114.8 ppb
2017-02-157B15129-0213.7 ppb
2017-05-177E17104-0211.0 ppb
2017-05-177E17104-0110.3 ppb
2017-08-167H16112-0215.7 ppb
2017-08-167H16112-0111.3 ppb
2017-11-157K15159-029.15 ppb
2017-11-157K15159-019.11 ppb