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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2021 UPDATE

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Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Status: National drinking water standard exists

 

Haloacetic acids are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine are added to tap water. The group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards includes monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. Read More.

Haloacetic acids are harmful during pregnancy and may increase the risk of cancer. Haloacetic acids are genotoxic, which means that they induce mutations and DNA damage. Multiple studies by the National Toxicology Program have demonstrated the cancer-causing properties of individual haloacetic acids in laboratory animals. The Department of Health and Human Services is currently considering listing di- or tri-haloacetic acids for possible inclusion in its comprehensive Report on Carcinogens.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.

2017-2019:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

50

states detected

27,617

utilities detected

286 million

people served

50

states over health guideline

27,583

utilities over health guideline

285 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Cancer

Harm to fetal growth and development

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.1 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.1 ppb for the group of five haloacetic acids, or HAA5, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a one-in-a-million lifetime cancer risk level. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 60 ppb

The legal limit for the group of five haloacetic acids (HAA5), established in 1998, was based on the need for residual disinfectant levels in water served to customers and the cost of treatment. This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer and harm to the developing fetus due to exposure to haloacetic acids.

ppb = parts per billion

States reporting haloacetic acids (HAA5) in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
California1,19635,521,9751,20436,035,375
Texas3,21226,650,9483,21526,707,828
Florida1,39120,318,3961,39420,350,989
New York1,54719,593,1721,54919,826,404
Illinois1,47612,110,3771,47612,110,377
Pennsylvania1,12510,967,8581,12510,967,858
Ohio7759,557,4967759,557,496
Georgia5298,649,8655368,768,170
New Jersey4338,699,7884358,712,235
North Carolina8198,425,6918198,425,691
Tennessee4267,059,1294267,059,129
Michigan6916,922,4076916,922,407
Virginia6426,909,1086426,909,108
Massachusetts2976,299,2492966,298,824
Colorado6836,229,5086836,229,508
Arizona2455,622,3162475,672,564
Alabama4705,634,2444715,667,616
Washington6655,334,5576675,377,349
Maryland2835,240,7202845,275,720
Louisiana9574,964,9909604,967,441
Indiana5734,875,9115734,875,911
Kentucky3684,462,2553694,465,249
Missouri4444,189,9004444,189,900
Minnesota5844,076,6535844,076,653
South Carolina3653,976,1073653,976,107
Wisconsin5603,872,8795653,880,576
Oregon3313,688,3423313,688,342
Oklahoma6903,440,4916903,440,491
Arkansas6192,835,1216192,835,121
Kansas7442,789,7707442,789,770
Nevada742,729,365752,729,835
Utah1842,668,9161852,688,440
Connecticut2212,663,3672212,663,367
Mississippi6412,377,7216412,377,721
Iowa6122,322,6746122,322,674
New Mexico2931,849,4192951,850,781
West Virginia4081,548,5174081,548,517
Nebraska1371,247,5561371,247,556
Rhode Island42964,46042964,460
Delaware116963,054116963,054
Idaho143746,457144760,457
New Hampshire151750,153151750,153
North Dakota282673,347282673,347
District Of Columbia4664,5724664,572
South Dakota243657,320243657,320
Alaska172606,167172606,167
Montana237557,937237577,920
Maine113577,893113577,893
Wyoming193445,456183441,927
Hawaii64418,61664418,616
Vermont113363,349113363,349
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce haloacetic acids (HAA5)

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Activated Carbon

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Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of haloacetic acids (HAA5), 2017-2019

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Thorne Bay, City ofThorne Bay, AK18 of 18180.8 ppb470
Vixen Water System WestChatham, LA84 of 84170.9 ppb288
Eagle Lakes WTPBunnell, FL4 of 4169.4 ppb231
Hudson Gaars Mill Water SystemDodson, LA56 of 56168.2 ppb660
Red Gate Mobile Home ParkPort Orchard, WA7 of 7161.7 ppb23
Fairview Union Water System*Coushatta, LA94 of 94154.8 ppb2,205
Vixen Water System EastChatham, LA72 of 72154.7 ppb486
Vallenar View Mobile Home ParkKetchikan, AK6 of 6140.1 ppb225
Tatitlek Water SystemTatitlek, AK10 of 10138.7 ppb95
Elk City, City ofElk City, KS23 of 23136.7 ppb294
Orient Water CompanyTonasket, WA24 of 24131.9 ppb85
Lowndes County-spring Creek S/dValdosta, GA48 of 48116.2 ppb2,959
Philmont Boy Scout Ranch - HeadquartersCimarron, NM40 of 40112.7 ppb2,000
Swisshome VillageSwisshome, OR6 of 6112.6 ppb36
Lakewood Water SystemLufkin, TX21 of 21108.9 ppb42
Sandy Point 480 Water SystemCampti, LA54 of 62108.3 ppb675
Severy, City ofSevery, KS19 of 19104.3 ppb230
Shasta Csa - Cragview, #23Redding, CA1 of 1103.0 ppb196
LowvilleLowville, NY26 of 26101.0 ppb350
East Columbia Water SystemColumbia, LA52 of 5299.8 ppb2,640
Ryan Utilities AuthorityRyan, OK45 of 4698.7 ppb800
Asher Utility Dev AuthorityAsher, OK24 of 2496.3 ppb375
Bellwood Water SystemProvencal, LA52 of 5295.3 ppb981
Sa#16 Sumner Hill-water SystemMadera, CA24 of 2594.0 ppb128
Forest Water Supply CorporationWells, TX46 of 4691.8 ppb561
City of HuxleyShelbyville, TX44 of 4491.6 ppb2,290
Bethlehem Village DistrictBethlehem, NH16 of 1690.6 ppb1,700
Oil City Water WorksOil City, LA104 of 10489.4 ppb2,199
City of StrawnStrawn, TX21 of 2289.1 ppb696
Wanette Public Works AuthorityWanette, OK23 of 2388.7 ppb402
Alberta Water SystemCastor, LA80 of 9488.2 ppb1,860
Tupper Lake VTupper Lake, NY46 of 4687.1 ppb5,500
Fcsa #30/el PorvenirFresno, CA24 of 2487.0 ppb130
Osage County Rural Water District # 20 (hulah)Bartlesville, OK23 of 2386.6 ppb350
Crescent Bay Improvement CompanyLower Lake, CA22 of 2286.5 ppb55
City of NomeNome, TX38 of 3985.4 ppb602
Surfwood Mutual Water CorporationMendocino, CA23 of 2384.8 ppb160
Avant Utilities AuthorityAvant, OK23 of 2484.5 ppb361
Rye, Town ofRye, CO26 of 2684.0 ppb745
Tullahassee WaterTullahassee, OK24 of 2483.5 ppb106
Fcsa #32/cantua CreekFresno, CA23 of 2382.8 ppb250
Barnsdall*Barnsdall, OK40 of 4081.1 ppb1,243
MaysvilleMaysville, OK49 of 4980.7 ppb1,212
Kake Municipal WaterKake, AK19 of 1979.3 ppb415
Md#01 Hidden Lake EstatesMadera, CA20 of 2079.0 ppb162
Mars Hill and Blaine Water CompanyMars Hill, ME25 of 2578.4 ppb1,800
Lazy S Mobile RanchMiddletown, CA15 of 1578.0 ppb73
HydaburgHydaburg, AK11 of 1177.9 ppb415
Osage County Rural Water District # 5Barnsdall, OK46 of 4776.7 ppb561
Pendleton Water AssociationMany, LA94 of 10074.9 ppb2,328

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Haloacetic acids (HAA5), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Bloomfield Water DepartmentBloomfield, NJ96 of 9668.3 ppb47,315
Eubank Water System*Eubank, KY96 of 9656.7 ppb12,492
Okmulgee*Okmulgee, OK99 of 10056.4 ppb13,495
South Central Water AssnRaymond, MS99 of 9955.5 ppb11,930
Muskogee*Muskogee, OK196 of 19653.7 ppb38,310
Walnut Creek SUD*Springtown, TX94 of 9452.8 ppb23,118
Belleville Water Department*Belleville, NJ97 of 9752.4 ppb35,129
Claremore*Claremore, OK105 of 10551.2 ppb15,873
Morrisville Munic Authority*Morrisville, PA96 of 9650.9 ppb13,342
Albany Water Works*Albany, KY96 of 9650.3 ppb14,702
City of BeevilleBeeville, TX96 of 9650.2 ppb15,039
City of Topeka*Topeka, KS192 of 19250.1 ppb165,000
Mohawk Correctional Facility*Rome, NY24 of 2449.2 ppb34,775
Watertown City*Watertown, NY273 of 27349.1 ppb29,406
City of Deerfield BeachDeerfield Beach, FL144 of 14449.0 ppb52,749
Newark Water Department*Newark, NJ281 of 28848.8 ppb294,274
McAlester PWA*Mcalester, OK105 of 10548.6 ppb18,206
Sandy, City of*Sandy, OR76 of 7648.1 ppb10,655
Springfield Water and Sewer Commission*Springfield, MA218 of 21848.0 ppb230,331
Jonesborough Water DepartmentJonesborough, TN96 of 9647.5 ppb32,369
Assumption Parish Waterworks District 1*Napoleonville, LA192 of 19247.3 ppb22,862
Rutland City Water Department*Rutland, VT96 of 9647.2 ppb18,500
Warren County Water DistrictBowling Green, KY211 of 21147.0 ppb74,096
Appalachian State Univ WTPBoone, NC103 of 10347.0 ppb11,150
Greenup Water System*Greenup, KY129 of 12946.4 ppb12,193
City of Concord*Concord, NC192 of 19246.3 ppb107,188
Bedford County UD*Shelbyville, TN97 of 9746.2 ppb18,722
North Monroe Et Al Water SystemWest Monroe, LA120 of 12846.0 ppb10,866
Green Taylor Water District*Greensburg, KY96 of 9646.0 ppb15,497
Marion County Water DistrictLebanon, KY96 of 9646.0 ppb16,311
Tuskegee Utilities Board*Tuskegee, AL103 of 10346.0 ppb12,510
Kensico Water DistrictValhalla, NY92 of 9245.9 ppb17,917
East Jefferson Waterworks District 1Jefferson, LA1702 of 1,70245.9 ppb243,782
Bedford Regional Water Authority (brwa)Bedford, VA115 of 11545.9 ppb30,133
Baldwin CountyMilledgeville, GA96 of 9645.7 ppb23,067
Floyd Water District*Rome, NY24 of 2445.7 ppb34,560
Marshall County Water Corp*Madill, OK96 of 9645.6 ppb14,717
Lamar County Water Supply District*Paris, TX96 of 9645.6 ppb22,269
City of Asheboro*Asheboro, NC96 of 9645.5 ppb25,791
Wilderness WTPRuckersville, VA96 of 9645.5 ppb12,124
Quantico Marine Base-Mainside*Quantico, VA100 of 10045.2 ppb14,525
Orangeburg DPU*Orangeburg, SC96 of 9645.1 ppb41,440
Oneida Water and Sewer Comm.Oneida, TN100 of 10044.7 ppb11,282
Lakeshore Swartz Water SystemWest Monroe, LA136 of 14444.7 ppb11,330
Henderson County Water DistrictHenderson, KY96 of 9644.6 ppb19,008
Christian County Water District*Hopkinsville, KY96 of 9644.6 ppb15,841
GCWSD Waccamaw NeckPawleys Island, SC124 of 12444.6 ppb38,364
South Cumberland UDCrossville, TN48 of 4844.6 ppb11,304
Rattlesnake Ridge Water District*Grayson, KY105 of 10544.5 ppb11,567
Clinton Utilities BoardClinton, TN96 of 9644.3 ppb17,974

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Haloacetic acids (HAA5), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.