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Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Status: National drinking water standard exists

 

Haloacetic acids are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine are added to tap water. The group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards includes monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. Read More.

Haloacetic acids are harmful during pregnancy and may increase the risk of cancer. Haloacetic acids are genotoxic, which means that they induce mutations and DNA damage. Multiple studies by the National Toxicology Program have demonstrated the cancer-causing properties of individual haloacetic acids in laboratory animals. The Department of Health and Human Services is currently considering listing di- or tri-haloacetic acids for possible inclusion in its comprehensive Report on Carcinogens.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.

2015:

FOUND

49

states detected

21,487

utilities detected

273 million

people served

Health concerns for haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Cancer

Harm to fetal growth and development

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 60 ppb

The enforceable federal standard that defines the highest level of a contaminant allowed in drinking water.

ppb = parts per billion.

States reporting haloacetic acids (HAA5) in drinking water

UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served
California99140,333,840
Texas2,28923,958,961
New York1,05419,725,490
Florida1,42719,359,719
Illinois1,12312,305,194
Pennsylvania94510,081,397
Ohio94310,022,821
Massachusetts2728,716,479
New Jersey4108,481,062
Georgia4277,698,104
North Carolina6967,513,838
Virginia4546,566,742
Tennessee3676,536,611
Colorado5025,410,805
Arizona1875,313,344
Alabama4175,047,405
Michigan1434,930,542
Washington4464,661,359
Indiana5074,529,295
Kentucky3534,506,133
Maryland254,496,379
Louisiana6764,365,353
Missouri4904,322,437
Minnesota4823,729,073
Wisconsin4013,687,509
South Carolina2923,484,804
Oregon2633,461,888
Oklahoma7633,348,868
Arkansas5392,963,540
Kansas6642,737,218
Connecticut1722,630,531
Nevada552,476,067
Utah1112,115,151
Iowa4312,026,877
New Mexico2521,676,056
West Virginia3891,502,418
Mississippi2231,020,775
Hawaii33965,534
Rhode Island41925,905
Delaware70816,464
District Of Columbia4664,572
North Dakota254583,050
South Dakota229566,888
Alaska122565,994
Montana166539,248
Idaho93535,396
Maine68491,708
Wyoming123397,171
Vermont91339,178
New Hampshire12162,582
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Utilities with the highest amounts of haloacetic acids (HAA5), 2015

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Potwin, City of*Potwin, KS1 of 1160.0 ppb436
Flushing, City ofFlushing, MI1 of 1160.0 ppb8,389
Orient Water CompanyTonasket, WA3 of 3143.6 ppb100
Butler County Rural Water District 7*Whitewater, KS1 of 1140.0 ppb1,300
Butler County Rural Water District 1*El Dorado, KS1 of 1140.0 ppb761
Latham, City ofLatham, KS1 of 1130.0 ppb138
Hudson Gaars Mill Water SystemSikes, LA4 of 4128.3 ppb660
Vixen Water System WestWest Monroe, LA12 of 12125.0 ppb288
Elk City, City of*Elk City, KS4 of 4124.3 ppb314
Vixen Water System EastWest Monroe, LA4 of 4122.2 ppb486
Truelight Redevelopment GroupAnguilla, MS8 of 8121.5 ppb129
Wilson County Rural Water District 12Neodesha, KS1 of 1120.0 ppb123
Tatitlek Water SystemTatitlek, AK1 of 1120.0 ppb95
Lakewood Water SystemLufkin, TX2 of 2118.7 ppb52
Lake Jackson Water AssociationGreenville, MS6 of 6118.7 ppb681
Forest Water Supply CorporationWells, TX8 of 8113.9 ppb561
Buckland Water SystemBuckland, AK4 of 4112.0 ppb417
Philmont Boy Scout Ranch - HeadquartersCimarron, NM6 of 6111.5 ppb2,150
Labette County Rural Water District 1cOswego, KS1 of 1110.0 ppb285
City of HuxleyShelbyville, TX6 of 6106.4 ppb1,964
Carthage, Town of*Carthage, NC8 of 8105.1 ppb2,767
N.e. Oklahoma Correctional CenterOklahoma City, OK3 of 3102.0 ppb444
Pappas & Company (coalinga)Mendota, CA4 of 4101.5 ppb25
Barnsdall*Barnsdall, OK5 of 5100.6 ppb1,243
Douglas County Rural Water District 6Lecompton, KS1 of 1100.0 ppb360
Thorne Bay, City ofThorne Bay, AK1 of 1100.0 ppb775
Oketo, City ofOketo, KS1 of 1100.0 ppb65
Terra Bella Irrigation District - TbtTerra Bella, CA6 of 699.2 ppb2,340
Hardy County Psd BakerMoorefield, WV4 of 498.4 ppb182
Hickory Manor Mobile Home ParkCincinnati, IN2 of 298.3 ppb250

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Haloacetic acids (HAA5), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

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UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Danville City Water Works*Danville, KY16 of 1683.9 ppb32,600
Walnut Creek SUD*Springtown, TX14 of 1478.6 ppb18,528
Larue County Water District #1Buffalo, KY8 of 876.8 ppb10,166
Magoffin County Water DistrictSalyersville, KY8 of 875.8 ppb10,294
Marshall County Water Corp*Madill, OK16 of 1669.8 ppb14,717
Natchitoches Water System*Natchitoches, LA56 of 5666.1 ppb30,000
City of Tyler*Tyler, TX32 of 3265.8 ppb109,242
Green Taylor Water District*Greensburg, KY16 of 1663.5 ppb15,497
Muskogee*Muskogee, OK16 of 1660.6 ppb38,310
Russell Springs Water & Sewer*Russell Springs, KY15 of 1560.3 ppb11,567
City of Baltimore*Baltimore, MD2 of 259.0 ppb1,600,000
Oneida Water and Sewer Comm.*Oneida, TN16 of 1658.9 ppb11,233
Okmulgee*Okmulgee, OK16 of 1658.9 ppb13,495
Warren County Water District*Bowling Green, KY32 of 3258.7 ppb74,096
South Granville Water and Sewer AuthorityButner, NC17 of 1758.1 ppb19,219
South Central Water AssnRaymond, MS16 of 1657.9 ppb13,185
Eubank Water System*Eubank, KY16 of 1657.5 ppb12,492
Lawrenceburg Water & Sewer Department*Lawrenceburg, KY16 of 1657.0 ppb19,305
Lake Utility Services Inc South*Clermont, FL15 of 1656.9 ppb10,266
City of Bloomington Utilities*Bloomington, IN32 of 3256.8 ppb63,580
North Mercer Water DistrictSalvisa, KY16 of 1656.6 ppb12,884
Paintsville Municipal Water Works*Paintsville, KY15 of 1556.3 ppb24,354
Lamar County Water Supply District*Paris, TX16 of 1656.2 ppb22,269
Shelbyville Water & Sewer Commission*Shelbyville, KY16 of 1656.1 ppb23,760
Stucker Fork Water Utility*Scottsburg, IN16 of 1655.9 ppb18,873
McAlester PWA*Mcalester, OK16 of 1655.5 ppb17,783
GCWSD Waccamaw NeckPawleys Island, SC16 of 1655.1 ppb34,190
Laguardo Utility DistrictLebanon, TN10 of 1055.0 ppb10,339
Hazard Water Department*Hazard, KY18 of 1854.6 ppb26,730
ElonElon, NC14 of 1453.9 ppb10,056

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Haloacetic acids (HAA5), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

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