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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Citrus Springs

Haloacetic acids are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine are added to tap water. The group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards includes monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. Read More.

Haloacetic acids are harmful during pregnancy and may increase the risk of cancer. Haloacetic acids are genotoxic, which means that they induce mutations and DNA damage. Multiple studies by the National Toxicology Program have demonstrated the cancer-causing properties of individual haloacetic acids in laboratory animals. The Department of Health and Human Services is currently considering listing di- or tri-haloacetic acids for possible inclusion in its comprehensive Report on Carcinogens.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.

 

34

Samples

1

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

23

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.0600 ppb61ND - 0.360 ppb
20136.33 ppb106ND - 61.3 ppb
20141.44 ppb1210ND - 5.80 ppb
20155.32 ppb224.63 ppb - 6.01 ppb
20160.500 ppb220.360 ppb - 0.640 ppb
20172.00 ppb221.70 ppb - 2.30 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.1 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.1 ppb for the group of five haloacetic acids, or HAA5, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a on-in-a-million lifetime cancer risk level. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 60 ppb

The legal limit for the group of five haloacetic acids (HAA5), established in 1998, was based on the need for residual disinfectant levels in water served to customers and the cost of treatment. This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer and harm to the developing fetus due to exposure to haloacetic acids.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Result
2012-08-120.360 ppb
2012-08-13ND
2012-08-13ND
2012-08-13ND
2012-08-13ND
2012-08-13ND
2013-08-13ND
2013-08-13ND
2013-08-13ND
2013-08-130.260 ppb
2013-08-1361.3 ppb
2013-08-13ND
2013-10-230.340 ppb
2013-10-230.320 ppb
2013-10-230.270 ppb
2013-10-230.810 ppb
2014-01-230.360 ppb
2014-01-230.280 ppb
2014-01-230.370 ppb
2014-01-23ND
2014-04-101.53 ppb
2014-04-102.81 ppb
2014-04-105.80 ppb
2014-04-102.95 ppb
2014-07-270.960 ppb
2014-07-27ND
2014-07-270.970 ppb
2014-07-271.22 ppb
2015-08-116.01 ppb
2015-08-114.63 ppb
2016-08-090.640 ppb
2016-08-100.360 ppb
2017-07-181.70 ppb
2017-07-182.30 ppb