EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE


Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Citrus County Utilities/Charles A. Black

Haloacetic acids are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine are added to tap water. The group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards includes monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. Read More.

Haloacetic acids are harmful during pregnancy and may increase the risk of cancer. Haloacetic acids are genotoxic, which means that they induce mutations and DNA damage. Multiple studies by the National Toxicology Program have demonstrated the cancer-causing properties of individual haloacetic acids in laboratory animals. The Department of Health and Human Services is currently considering listing di- or tri-haloacetic acids for possible inclusion in its comprehensive Report on Carcinogens.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.332 ppb64ND - 0.710 ppb
20130.534 ppb76ND - 1.58 ppb
20140.947 ppb129ND - 2.83 ppb
20150.755 ppb220.310 ppb - 1.20 ppb
20160.590 ppb220.360 ppb - 0.820 ppb
20171.11 ppb220.920 ppb - 1.30 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.1 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.1 ppb for the group of five haloacetic acids, or HAA5, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a on-in-a-million lifetime cancer risk level. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 60 ppb

The legal limit for the group of five haloacetic acids (HAA5), established in 1998, was based on the need for residual disinfectant levels in water served to customers and the cost of treatment. This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer and harm to the developing fetus due to exposure to haloacetic acids.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Result
2012-01-100.300 ppb
2012-08-140.610 ppb
2012-08-140.370 ppb
2012-08-140.710 ppb
2013-08-130.440 ppb
2013-08-130.330 ppb
2013-08-130.300 ppb
2013-10-231.58 ppb
2013-10-230.820 ppb
2013-10-230.270 ppb
2014-01-230.420 ppb
2014-01-230.390 ppb
2014-01-230.420 ppb
2014-04-162.83 ppb
2014-04-161.52 ppb
2014-04-161.61 ppb
2014-07-232.07 ppb
2014-07-230.450 ppb
2014-07-231.65 ppb
2015-08-060.310 ppb
2015-08-081.20 ppb
2016-08-030.820 ppb
2016-08-030.360 ppb
2017-07-180.920 ppb
2017-07-181.30 ppb