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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Perfluorononanoic acid, otherwise known as PFNA or C9, is a PFC similar in function and use to PFOA. These chemicals were used in the production of non-stick, stain repellent and chemically inert coatings. Click here to read more about perfluorinated chemicals.

2012-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

10

states detected

28

utilities detected

682,000

people served

9

states over health guideline

21

utilities over health guideline

635,000

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for perfluorononanoic acid

Cancer

Harm to the immune system

Hormone disruption

Harm to fetal growth and child development

Harm to the liver

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 1 ppt

The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppt for perfluorononanoic acid was defined by EWG based on studies by Phillipe Grandjean of Harvard University and many other independent researchers who found reduced effectiveness of vaccines and adverse impacts on mammary gland development from exposure to PFOA and PFOS, the two PFAS most widely detected in drinking water. This health guideline applies to the entire class of PFAS detected in water.

ppt = parts per trillion

States reporting perfluorononanoic acid in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
Pennsylvania6152,53211174,391
New York2154,0002154,000
Delaware197,310197,310
New Jersey482,045482,045
Massachusetts463,954463,954
California139,400139,400
New Hampshire00225,955
Washington122,926122,926
Florida119,000119,000
Maryland13,50013,500
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce perfluorononanoic acid

carbon filter icon

Activated Carbon

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of perfluorononanoic acid, 2012-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Devens Massdevelopment*Devens, MA11 of 152,175.4 ppt6,500
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA3 of 19780.8 ppt35,000
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA10 of 4286.4 ppt18,954
Gloucester City W DepartmentGloucester City, NJ2 of 252.4 ppt12,460
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL1 of 213.5 ppt19,000
Suez Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE1 of 413.5 ppt97,310
Woodbury City Water DepartmentWoodbury, NJ2 of 1010.2 ppt11,485
Issaquah Water SystemIssaquah, WA3 of 97.28 ppt22,926
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 95.18 ppt97,645
Monroe Twp MUAWilliamstown, NJ2 of 124.34 ppt36,100
Quakertown BoroQuakertown, PA2 of 164.19 ppt12,800
Camp Pendleton (South)Camp Pendleton, CA7 of 913.02 ppt39,400
Emmaus Borough Public Water*Emmaus, PA1 of 82.75 ppt14,000
Lca Emmaus Consecutive DivAllentown, PA1 of 82.75 ppt1,033
West Deptford Twp Water DepartmentThorofare, NJ1 of 161.88 ppt22,000
Water Authority of Western NassauFloral Park, NY1 of 181.78 ppt120,000
Port Washington WD38 Sqndy Hollow Rd, NY1 of 171.38 ppt34,000
Ambler Boro Water DeptAmbler, PA1 of 221.32 ppt20,000
Plumstead Township Patriots RidgePlumsteadville,, PA1 of 300.867 ppt1,704
Dtma Main System*Doylestown, PA1 of 300.867 ppt8,655
Cabot PreserveMerrimack, NH4 of 2420.0500 ppt955
Merrimack Village District*Merrimack, NH4 of 2420.0500 ppt25,000

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA3 of 19780.8 ppt35,000
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA10 of 4286.4 ppt18,954
Gloucester City W DepartmentGloucester City, NJ2 of 252.4 ppt12,460
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL1 of 213.5 ppt19,000
Suez Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE1 of 413.5 ppt97,310
Woodbury City Water DepartmentWoodbury, NJ2 of 1010.2 ppt11,485
Issaquah Water SystemIssaquah, WA3 of 97.28 ppt22,926
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 95.18 ppt97,645
Monroe Twp MUAWilliamstown, NJ2 of 124.34 ppt36,100
Quakertown BoroQuakertown, PA2 of 164.19 ppt12,800
Camp Pendleton (South)Camp Pendleton, CA7 of 913.02 ppt39,400
Emmaus Borough Public Water*Emmaus, PA1 of 82.75 ppt14,000
West Deptford Twp Water DepartmentThorofare, NJ1 of 161.88 ppt22,000
Water Authority of Western NassauFloral Park, NY1 of 181.78 ppt120,000
Port Washington WD38 Sqndy Hollow Rd, NY1 of 171.38 ppt34,000
Ambler Boro Water DeptAmbler, PA1 of 221.32 ppt20,000
Merrimack Village District*Merrimack, NH4 of 2420.0500 ppt25,000

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.