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Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Perfluorononanoic acid, otherwise known as PFNA or C9, is a PFC similar in function and use to PFOA. These chemicals were used in the production of non-stick, stain repellent and chemically inert coatings. Click here to read more about perfluorinated chemicals.

2010-2015:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

8

states detected

21

utilities detected

553,000

people served

8

states over health guideline

16

utilities over health guideline

531,000

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for perfluorononanoic acid

Cancer

Harm to the immune system

Hormone disruption

Harm to fetal growth and child development

Harm to the liver

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

Health Guideline 1 ppt

The health guideline of 1 ppt for perfluorononanoic acid was defined by EWG based on studies by Phillipe Grandjean of Harvard University and many other independent researchers who found reduced effectiveness of vaccines and adverse impacts on mammary gland development from exposure to PFOA and PFOS, the two PFAS most widely detected in drinking water. This health guideline applies to the entire class of PFAS detected in water.

ppt = parts per trillion.

States reporting perfluorononanoic acid in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
Pennsylvania6152,53211174,391
New York1120,0001120,000
Delaware197,310197,310
New Jersey481,185481,185
Massachusetts135,000135,000
Washington122,926122,926
Florida119,000119,000
Maryland13,50013,500
MORE
LESS

Utilities with the highest amounts of perfluorononanoic acid, 2010-2015

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Gloucester City W DepartmentGloucester City, NJ2 of 252.4 ppt12,600
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL1 of 213.5 ppt19,000
United Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE1 of 413.5 ppt97,310
Woodbury City Water DepartmentWoodbury, NJ2 of 1010.2 ppt11,485
Issaquah Water System*Issaquah, WA2 of 86.83 ppt22,926
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 95.18 ppt97,645
Monroe Twp MUAWilliamstown, NJ2 of 124.34 ppt36,100
Quakertown BoroQuakertown, PA2 of 164.19 ppt12,800
Emmaus Borough Public Water*Emmaus, PA1 of 82.75 ppt14,000
Barnstable Water Company (Hyannis)Hyannis, MA1 of 142.50 ppt35,000
West Deptford Twp Water DepartmentThorofare, NJ1 of 161.88 ppt21,000
Water Authority of Western NassauFloral Park, NY1 of 181.78 ppt120,000
Ambler Boro Water DeptAmbler, PA1 of 221.32 ppt20,000
Dtma Main System*Doylestown, PA1 of 300.867 ppt8,655

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Gloucester City W DepartmentGloucester City, NJ2 of 252.4 ppt12,600
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL1 of 213.5 ppt19,000
United Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE1 of 413.5 ppt97,310
Woodbury City Water DepartmentWoodbury, NJ2 of 1010.2 ppt11,485
Issaquah Water System*Issaquah, WA2 of 86.83 ppt22,926
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 95.18 ppt97,645
Monroe Twp MUAWilliamstown, NJ2 of 124.34 ppt36,100
Quakertown BoroQuakertown, PA2 of 164.19 ppt12,800
Emmaus Borough Public Water*Emmaus, PA1 of 82.75 ppt14,000
Barnstable Water Company (Hyannis)Hyannis, MA1 of 142.50 ppt35,000
West Deptford Twp Water DepartmentThorofare, NJ1 of 161.88 ppt21,000
Water Authority of Western NassauFloral Park, NY1 of 181.78 ppt120,000
Ambler Boro Water DeptAmbler, PA1 of 221.32 ppt20,000

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.