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Mercury in Seafood

U.S. Fish Advice May Expose Babies to Too Much Mercury

March 16, 2016

Mercury in Seafood: References

[1] Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Fish: What Pregnant Women and Parents Should Know. Draft Updated Advice by FDA and EPA. June 2014. Available: www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Metals/ucm393070.htm

[2] Yanni Papanikolaou, et al. 2014. U.S. adults are not meeting recommended levels for fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake: results of an analysis using observational data from NHANES 2003–2008. Nutrition Journal. 13:31. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992162/

[3] Cristina Campoy, et al. 2012 Omega 3 fatty acids on child growth, visual acuity and neurodevelopment. British Journal of Nutrition. 107 Suppl 2:S85-106. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591907

[4] Philippe Grandjean, et al. 2012. Calculation of Mercury’s Effects on Neurodevelopment. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120:a450-a452. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548290/

[5] Margaret McDowell, et al. 2004. Hair Mercury Levels in U.S. Children and Women of Childbearing Age: Reference Range Data from NHANES 1999-2000. Environmental Health Perspectives. 112(11):1165–1171. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1247476/

[6] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015 – 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. Available: health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/chapter-1/a-closer-look-inside-healthy-eating-patterns/#callout-seafood

[7] Yanni Papanikolaou, et al. 2014. U.S. adults are not meeting recommended levels for fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake: results of an analysis using observational data from NHANES 2003–2008. Nutrition Journal. 13:31. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992162/

[8] Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Fish: What Pregnant Women and Parents Should Know. Draft Updated Advice by FDA and EPA. June 2014. Available: www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Metals/ucm393070.htm

[9] Edward Groth III. 2010. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: Implications for risk communication. Environmental Research. 111(3):226-236. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935109002254 and

Elsie Sunderland. 2007. Mercury Exposure from Domestic and Imported Estuarine and Marine Fish in the U.S. Seafood Market. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115(2):235-242. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1817718/

[10] EWG. 2014. Mercury in Seafood: US Seafood Advice Flawed on Mercury, Omega-3s. Environmental Working Group, January 2014.
Available: www.ewg.org/research/us-gives-seafood-eaters-flawed-advice-on-mercury-contamination-healthy-omega-3s

[11] California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Guide for Selecting Seafood Lower in Mercury and Higher in Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Available: www.oehha.ca.gov/fish/pdf/2011CommFishGuide_color.pdf and

Washington State Department of Health. Healthy Fish Guide. Available: www.doh.wa.gov/CommunityandEnvironment/Food/Fish/HealthyFishGuide and Connecticut Department of Public Health. Connecticut’s Fish Consumption Advisory and the Safe Eating of Fish Caught in Connecticut. Available: www.ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?a=3140&Q=387460

[12] Jordi Julvez, et al. 2013. Genetic susceptibility to methylmercury developmental neurotoxicity matters. Frontiers in Genetics. 4(278):1-4. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3861742/

[13] EPA. 2001. Reference Dose for methyl mercury (MeHg) (CASRN 22967-92-6) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Available: www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0073.htm

[14] Kathryn Mahaffey, et al. 2009. Adult Women’s Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999–2004). Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(1):47-53. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627864/

[15] National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury. National Research Council, National Academy Press. Available: www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=9899

[16] Frodi Debes, et al. 2006. Impact of prenatal methyl mercury exposure on neurobehavioral function at age 14 years. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 28(3):536–547. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1543702/

Sharon Sagiv, et al. 2012. Prenatal exposure to mercury and fish consumption during pregnancy and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder related behavior in children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 166(12):1123-31. Available:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991460/

J.J. Strain, et al. 2008. Associations of maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Neurotoxicology. 29:776-782. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2574624/

Sara T.C. Orenstein, et al. 2014. Prenatal organochlorine and methylmercury exposure and memory and learning in school-age children in communities near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Massachusetts. Environmental Health Perspectives. 122:1253–1259. Available: www.ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307804/

Sally Lederman, et al. 2008. Relation between cord blood mercury levels and early child development in a World Trade Center cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives. 116(8):1085-91. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2516590/

Anna Choi, et al. 2008. Negative confounding in the evaluation of toxicity: the case of methylmercury in fish and seafood. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 38(10):877-93. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597522/

[17] Emily Oken, et al. 2005. Maternal fish consumption, hair mercury, and infant cognition in a U.S. cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113, 1376-1380. and

Emily Oken, et al. 2008. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology. 167, 1171-1181. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2590872/

[18] Zero Mercury Working Group. 2012. An Overview of Epidemiological Evidence on the Effects of Methyl mercury on Brain Development, and A Rationale for a Lower Definition of Tolerable Exposure. December 2012. Available: www.zeromercury.org

[19] Sharon Sagiv, et al. 2012. Prenatal exposure to mercury and fish consumption during pregnancy and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder related behavior in children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 166(12):1123-31. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991460/

[20] Sara T.C. Orenstein. 2014. Prenatal organochlorine and methylmercury exposure and memory and learning in school-age children in communities near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Massachusetts. Environmental Health Perspectives. 122:1253–1259. Available: www.dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307804

[21] Jordi Julvez, et al. 2016. Maternal Consumption of Seafood in Pregnancy and Child Neuropsychological Development: A Longitudinal Study Based on a Population with High Consumption Levels. American Journal of Epidemiology. 183(3):169-82. Available: www.aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/183/3/169.long

[22]  Jordi Julvez, et al. 2012. Epidemiological Evidence on Mercury Toxicity. Chapter 2, in Methylmercury and Neurotoxicity. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Available: www.link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-2383-6_2

[23] Gary Ginsberg, et al. 2009. Quantitative Approach for Incorporating Methylmercury Risks and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Benefits in Developing Species-Specific Fish Consumption Advice. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(2): 267-275.
 
[24] = Katerina Smith, et al. 2010. Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: preferential consumption for maximum health benefits. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 60(1-2):1615-1618.
 
[25] = Kathryn Mahaffey, et al. 2011. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Nutrition Reviews. Sep 69(9):493-508
 
[26] Marco Zeilmaker, et al. 2013. Fish consumption during child bearing age: A quantitative risk–benefit analysis on neurodevelopment. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 54:30-34. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027869151100576X

[27] Emily Oken, et al. 2013. A pilot randomized controlled trial to promote healthful fish consumption during pregnancy: the Food for Thought Study. Nutrition Journal. 15(12):33. Available: nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-12-33

[28] Samara J. Nielsen, et al. 2014. Seafood consumption and blood mercury concentration in adults aged >=20 y, 2007-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 99(5):1066-70. Available: www.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/99/5/1066.long

[29] Susan Buchanan, et al. 2014. Methyl mercury exposure in populations at risk: Analysis of NHANES 2011–2012. Environmental Research. 140:56-64. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115000766

[30] Kathryn Mahaffey, et al. 2009.Adult Women’s Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999–2004). Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(1):47-53. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627864/

[31] Alethea Ramos, et al. 2014. Hair Mercury and Fish Consumption in Residents of O’ahu, Hawai’i. Hawai’i Journal of Medicine & Public Health. 73(1):1925. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901168/ and

Reni Soon, et al. 2013. Seafood consumption and umbilical cord blood mercury concentrations in a multiethnic maternal and child health cohort. Pregnancy and Childbirth. 14:209. Available: bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-14-209

[32] Anil Nair, et al. 2014. Fish Consumption and Hair Mercury Levels in Women of Childbearing Age, Marin County, Florida. Maternal Child Health Journal. 18(10):2352-61. Available: link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10995-014-1475-2

[33] Rebecca Lincoln, et al. 2011. Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119(2):245–251. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040613/

[34] Alaska Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. Alaska Hair Mercury Biomonitoring Program Update, July 2002-December 2012. State of Alaska Epidemiology Bulletin. Available: www.epi.hss.state.ak.us/bulletins/docs/b2013_06.pdf

[35] Wendy McKelvey, et al. 2007. A Biomonitoring Study of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in the Blood of New York City Adults. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115(10):1435-1441.

[36] Linda Knobeloch, et al. 2005. Fish consumption, advisory awareness, and hair mercury levels among women of childbearing age. Environmental Research. 97(2):220-227. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935104001318        

[37] Jane Hightower, et al. 2006. Blood Mercury Reporting in NHANES: Identifying Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial Groups. Environmental Health Perspectives. 114(2):173-5. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1367827/

[38] Jianping Xue, et al. 2011. Methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption in vulnerable racial/ethnic populations: Probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model analyses using 1999–2006 NHANES and 1990–2002 TDS data. Science of the Total Environment. 414:373-379. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711011685

[39] Amy Tsuchiya, et al. 2008. Mercury exposure from fish consumption within the Japanese and Korean communities. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A. 71(15):1019-31. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18569611

[40] Wendy McKelvey, et al. 2007. A Biomonitoring Study of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in the Blood of New York City Adults. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115(10):1435-1441 Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2022653/

[41] Susan Buchanan, et al. 2015. Fish Consumption and Hair Mercury Among Asians in Chicago. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 57(12):1325-30. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641830

[42] Koenraad Marien, et al. 2001. Exposure analysis of five fish-consuming populations for overexposure to methylmercury. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 11(3):193-206. Available: www.nature.com/jes/journal/v11/n3/full/7500160a.html

[43] Linda Knobeloch, et al. 2005. Fish consumption, advisory awareness, and hair mercury levels among women of childbearing age. Environmental Research. 97(2):220-227. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935104001318 and

Johanna Burger. 2013. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake. Journal of Risk Research. 16(8).

[44] Kathryn Mahaffey, et al. 2009.Adult Women’s Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999–2004). Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(1):47-53. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627864/

[45] Johanna Burger, et al. 2013. Sushi consumption rates and mercury levels in sushi: ethnic and demographic differences in exposure. Journal of Risk Research, 17(8). Available: www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13669877.2013.822925

[46] Roxanne Karimi, et al. 2014. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 217(7):758–764. and:

Samara J. Nielsen, et al. 2014. Seafood consumption and blood mercury concentration in adults aged >=20 y, 2007-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 99(5):1066-70. Available: www.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/99/5/1066.long

[47] Emily Oken, et al. 2013. Assessment of dietary fish consumption in pregnancy: comparing one-, four- and thirty-six-item questionnaires. Public Health Nutrition. 17(9):1949-1959.

[48] Amy Tsuchiya, et al. 2008. Fish intake guidelines: incorporating n-3 fatty acid intake and contaminant exposure in the Korean and Japanese communities. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87(6):1867-75. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18541579

Rebecca Lincoln, et al. 2011. Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119(2):245–251. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040613/

[49] Karolin Björnberg, et al. 2005. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption. Science of the Total Environment, 341:45–52. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969704006576

[50] Rebecca Lincoln, et al. 2011. Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119(2):245–251. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040613/

[51] Roxanne Karimi, et al. 2012. A Quantitative Synthesis of Mercury in Commercial Seafood and Implications for Exposure in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120(11):1512-19. Available: www.ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1205122/

[52] Consumer Reports. 2011. Mercury in canned tuna still a concern: New tests reinforce a need for some people to limit consumption. January 2011. Available: www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine-archive/2011/january/food/mercury-in-tuna/overview/index.htm and;

Mercury Policy Project. 2012. Tuna Surprise: Hidden Risks in School Lunches. Available: mercurypolicy.org/?p=1611

[53] For example: J.J. Kaneko, et al. 2007. Selenium and Mercury in Pelagic Fish in the Central North Pacific Near Hawaii. Biology of Trace Element Research. 119:242-254. Available: link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12011-007-8004-8

Rebecca Lincoln, et al. 2011. Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119(2):245–251. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040613/

Johanna Burger, et al. 2011. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season. Science of the Total Environment. 409 (2011) 1418–1429.

Health Canada. 2008. Human Health Risk Assessment of Mercury in Fish and Health Benefits from Fish Consumption. November 3, 2008. Available: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/pubs/mercur/merc_fish_poisson-eng.php

[54] US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2013. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, release 26. Nutrient Data Laboratory. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/services/docs.htm?docid=8964

[55] For example: Kelly Weaver, et al. 2007. The Content of Favorable and Unfavorable Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Found in Commonly Eaten Fish. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108:1178-85. Available: www.andjrnl.org/article/S0002-8223(08)00515-4/abstract

Claudia Strobel, et al. 2012. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products. Lipids in Health and Disease. 11:144-153. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543232/

Dennis Cladis, et al. 2014. Fatty Acid Profiles of Commercially Available Finfish Fillets in the United States. Lipids. 49(10):1005-18. Available: link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11745-014-3932-5

[56] As in Rebecca Lincoln, et al. 2011. Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119(2):245–251. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040613/

[57] Alan Stern. 1997. Estimation of the inter-individual variability in the one-compartment pharmacokinetic model for methylmercury: implications for the derivation of a reference dose. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.25(3):277-288.

[58] Rebecca Lincoln, et al. 2011. Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119(2):245–251. Available: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040613/