Monday, March 3, 2003

Rocket Fuel in Drinking Water

New data show widespread nationwide contamination

Drinking water for more than 20 million Americans is contaminated with a toxic legacy of the Cold War: A chemical that interferes with normal thyroid function, may cause cancer and persists indefinitely in the environment, but is currently unregulated by state or federal authorities. Perchlorate, the explosive main ingredient of rocket and missile fuel, contaminates drinking water supplies, groundwater or soil in hundreds of locations in at least 43 states, according to Environmental Working Group’s updated analysis of government data. EWG’s analysis of the latest scientific studies, which show harmful health effects from minute doses, argues that a national standard for perchlorate in drinking water should be no higher than one-tenth the level the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency currrently recommends as safe.

Perchlorate Pollution Spreading Nationwide

Drinking water for more than 20 million Americans is contaminated with a toxic legacy of the Cold War: A chemical that interferes with normal thyroid function, may cause cancer and persists indefinitely in the environment, but is currently unregulated by state or federal authorities.

Perchlorate, the explosive main ingredient of rocket and missile fuel, contaminates drinking water supplies, groundwater or soil in hundreds of locations in at least 43 states, according to Environmental Working Group’s updated analysis of government data. EWG’s analysis of the latest scientific studies, which show harmful health effects from minute doses, argues that a national standard for perchlorate in drinking water should be no higher than one-tenth the level the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency currrently recommends as safe.

Perchlorate is a powerful thyroid toxin that can affect the thyroid’s ability to take up the essential nutrient iodide and make thyroid hormones. Small disruptions in thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy can cause lowered IQ and larger disruptions cause mental retardation, loss of hearing and speech, or deficits in motor skills for infants and children.

In California, Arizona and Nevada, where testing has been most extensive, well over 20 million people drink water from public and private sources known to be polluted with perchlorate. This estimate includes millions of customers of 81 contaminated public water systems in California and aproximately 20 million customers in the three states who get at least part of their drinking water from the perchlorate-tainted Colorado River. (Because there is some overlap between systems that are supplied by groundwater sources and those supplied by the Colorado River, a total cannot be calculated by adding the two figures.)

Link: Perchlorate-contaminated drinking water sources in California.

Link: More than 20 million people in California, Arizona and Nevada get at least part of their drinking water from the perchlorate-contaminated Colorado River.

On March 3, 2003, Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-CA, introduced legislation that would mandate that the federal government set a drinking water standard for perchlorate by July 1, 2004. California health officials are working toward setting a state drinking water standard sometime in 2004, but the EPA is not expected to set enforceable national standards before 2008, if then.

California’s current provisional drinking water standard, which is only advisory, is 2 to 6 parts per billion (ppb). The EPA’s current draft standard is equivalent to 1 ppb. Boxer’s legislation does not specify what the standard should be but mandates that it be set at a level that will protect the most sensitive populations. EWG’s analysis of new studies, showing harmful effects from very low doses, argues that to protect children the standard should be no higher than one-tenth the EPA’s recommendation, or 0.1 ppb.

Link: New Studies Show Harm From Much Lower Doses of Perchlorate.

EWG’s analysis of the latest federal and state data shows:

Perchlorate is used in fireworks, safety flares, matches and car air bags, but 90 percent of it goes into solid rocket fuel for military missiles and the NASA space shuttle. American Pacific Corp. of Las Vegas and Kerr-McGee Corp. of Oklahoma City were the sole U.S. producers until 1998, when American Pacific bought out its rival.

National data is still spotty, but extensive drinking water testing is now taking place under the federal Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule, which requires testing by all large water systems and some smaller ones. As the data comes in, perchlorate contamination is being found in many places where there was no record of the chemical’s use.

Once thought to affect only Air Force facilities and contractors, more recently perchlorate contamination has been found in tests at many Army and Navy sites as well, especially where munitions have been disposed of by open burning or detonation. Among known contaminated sites is the McGregor Naval Weapons Plant in central Texas, just a few miles from President Bush’s ranch. Underground plumes of perchlorate have also been found spreading from non-military industrial sites, such as an abandoned flare factory in San Martin, Calif., formerly operated by Olin Corp. of Norwalk, Conn., that has polluted more than 100 private wells.

Although the majority of known and suspected perchlorate-contaminated sites are operated by the military or contractors such as St. Louis-based Lockheed Martin, the Department of Defense and the aerospace and defense industry are stubbornly resisting the efforts of regulators to set adequate safety standards or clean up contaminated sites.

Despite volumes of new evidence showing that very low doses are harmful to fetuses, infants and children, the Pentagon and its contractors argue that the risks of perchlorate should be assessed on the basis of a single study, funded by the defense industry, on short-term exposure of a handful of adult men and non-pregnant women. Last year, Kerr-McGee and Lockheed Martin successfully sued California health authorities to reconsider the state’s provisional drinking water standard, which likely will force the state to miss a January 2004 deadline, mandated by state law, for setting an enforceable standard.

Both the Defense Department and Lockheed Martin, which is being sued by 800 residents of San Bernardino, Calif., for cancer and other illnesses they believe were caused by decades of drinking perchlorate-contaminated water, maintain that perchlorate is safe at levels 200 times higher than the EPA’s current recommendation. In fact, there is strong evidence that the EPA’s recommended level of 1 ppb is far too high.

Neither the EPA nor the state of California have taken into account the numerous common anti-thyroid chemicals which may worsen the effects of perchlorate, notably the drinking water contaminant nitrate. Neither the EPA nor California have taken note of epidemiological studies that found effects on infant thyroid hormone levels at 1 to 6 ppb.

And neither the EPA nor California have adequately considered the extra perchlorate that may be consumed by eating lettuce or other produce grown with contaminated water. Documents obtained and published by EWG in December 2002 showed that a 1997 study in San Bernardino, Calif., of leafy vegetables growing in perchlorate-contaminated water found that the crops took up and stored perchlorate and concentrated it by an average factor of 65. This high rate of bioaccumulation means that a pregnant woman who ate a two-ounce serving of the vegetables would get a dose of perchlorate more than 100 times higher than what the EPA recommends as safe in a liter of drinking water.

Link: High Levels of Toxic Rocket Fuel Found in Lettuce.

Known Health Effects

Rocket Fuel in Drinking Water: New Studies Show Harm From Much Lower Doses

Perchlorate was first discovered to affect the thyroid 50 years ago, but only recently has research focused on its effects at low levels. The trend in the findings is both clear and ominous: The more scientists look, the lower they find the threshold for adverse effects.

Perchlorate’s main effect is on the thyroid gland, which is responsible for controlling growth, development and metabolism. Perchlorate inhibits the thyroid’s ability to take up iodide, a necessary nutrient, which is important in the production of thyroid hormones. An underactive thyroid gland in adults can lead to fatigue, depression, anxiety, unexplained weight gain, hair loss, and low libido.

More serious, however, are the effects of thyroid hormone disruption in the developing fetus and child: Small changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy have been associated with reduced IQs in children. Fetuses, infants and children who experience more significant changes in hormone levels may suffer mental retardation, loss of hearing and speech, abnormal testicular development or deficits in motor skills. In older children, depressed thyroid levels have been associated with lower motivation to learn and attention deficit disorder. (Haddow et al. 1999, Pop et al. 1999.)

As recently as 1998, only one study had shown any adverse effect of perchlorate at levels as low as 0.01 micrograms per kilogram of drinking water a day. More recent research has shown that even at this very low dose level, perchlorate induces significant effects on the levels of thyroid hormones in the mother, fetus and offspring. (Crofton 2001.) And similar low dose studies have found “a large number of significant effects” on brain structure and thyroid structure. (Argus 2001, EPA 2002.)

A clear trend among the most recent perchlorate studies is more profound effects were seen in laboratory animals who were exposed in utero. This is unsurprising, given that research has shown that marginal iodine deficiency has significant effects on the fetal thyroid even if no effects are seen in the mother. One study, for instance, found that the thyroids of pregnant rats were able to compensate for marginal iodide deficiency in the diet but that such compensation did not take place in the fetal offspring which showed a 50 percent decrease in iodide uptake. (Versloot et. al. 1997.)

One recent study found thyroid tumors in second-generation exposed rats at extremely young ages. In fact, out of thirty rat pups which were exposed to perchlorate both in utero and as pups, two developed thyroid tumors after just 19 weeks. (Argus 1999.) These types of thyroid tumors are extremely rare, especially when seen this early: The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) had estimated the probability of this occurring at less than two-tenths of one percent. (EPA 2002.) Although the dose tested was significantly higher than what might be consumed in drinking water, the findings are troubling because they point to the possibility of in utero programming. This phenomenon, in which fetal exposure leads to a higher susceptibility to hormone perturbation during development and adulthood, has been seen in other cases of endocrine disruption. (Prins et al. 2001, Phillips et al. 1998. Seckl 1997.)

Because iodide is concentrated not only by the thyroid gland, but also by the mammary gland, one of the questions lingering after the peer review of EPA’s 1998 provisional reference dose was whether perchlorate would be found or concentrated in breast milk. Recent technological improvements made it possible to look into this question and the results were troubling. Perchlorate was found in the milk of rats that were given very low doses of perchlorate in drinking water (0.01 mg/kg-day), leading the EPA to conclude that rat pups “are in fact exposed to significant levels of perchlorate through the maternal milk.” (Yu 2000, EPA 2002.)

Of several epidemiological studies looking at the effects of perchlorate exposure on newborn infants, only two were funded by entities that did not have a significant stake in the outcome of the results. One study, conducted by the Arizona Department of Health Services, found differences in infant thyroid hormone levels among babies in Arizona born to mothers who had consumed perchlorate-tainted Colorado River water as compared to mothers who had not been exposed to perchlorate during pregnany. (Brechner et al. 2000.)

These findings were confirmed by another recent study of California newborns which found that concentrations of perchlorate at about the same level proposed as a drinking water standard may affect infant thyroid hormone levels. The looked at the hormone levels of all infants born in California in 1996 and compared the hormone levels of infants whose mothers had drunk perchlorate-contaminated water to those whose mothers had not. The study found a statistically significant effect on infant thyroid hormone levels from perchlorate exposure by the mother of only 1 to 2 ppb. The effects were more pronounced at higher dose levels. (Schwartz 2001.)

Studies looking at the ecological effects of perchlorate contamination also raise red flags. For example, one study exposed frog embryos to perchlorate at levels found in some surface and groundwaters. The frogs were found to have inhibited forelimb emergence, significantly lower percentages of animals completing tail resorption, reduced hind limb development, and a skewed sex ratio. (Goleman et al. 2002.) The study notes: “These effects were observed at concentrations at or below concentrations reported in surface waters contaminated with ammonium perchlorate, suggesting that this contaminant may pose a threat to normal development and growth in natural amphibian populations.”

Despite all this new evidence, the Department of Defense and the aerospace and defense industry have been trying to get state and federal officials to base perchlorate risk assessments on the results of a single industry-funded human study. This study (Greer et al. 2002) was designed to characterize the effects of a 14-day exposure on adult males and non-pregnant females. How much its results can be extrapolated to the real world is severely limited by several factors.

  • First, the study subjects had healthy thyroids and high iodine intake levels relative to the normal population — whereas 15 percent of U.S. women of reproductive age may have low iodide consumption. (OEHHA 2002.)
  • Second, adult humans have an extensive reserve of thyroid hormones which would limit the effects of a short-term exposure, but not the harm from the lifelong perchlorate exposure that most people would experience.
  • Third, the study was not conducted on the population of concern: pregnant women, children and infants. Because pregnancy puts stress on the thyroid, and the hormone reserves that exist in adults are smaller in children and virtually nonexistent in infants and neonates, these populations are much more susceptible to inhibition of iodide uptake (Delange and Ermans 1991.)
  • Finally, although the lowest dose tested was designated as a no-effect level in this study, decreased iodide uptake was in fact observed. The EPA has concluded that the study was statistically underpowered to detect significant effects at the lowest dose level, due in part to the small sample size of just seven people. (EPA 2002.)

Despite these numerous and obvious flaws, the Pentagon and industry have used these results to argue for a drinking water standard of 200 ppb.

While state and federal authorities inch towards establishing the first enforceable drinking water standard for perchlorate, an array of proposed standards, action levels” and other proto-standards are circulating. Understandably, this has led to a considerable amount of confusion and frustration within the water-supply industry, which is left with contaminated water and little firm guidance on what level of perchlorate is safe to serve their customers. Unfortunately, none of the proposed standards are likely to be adequate to protect children’s health.

California’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) is explicitly directed to draft Public Health Goals that protect public health including sensitive subpopulations “with an adequate margin of safety.” Yet in its most recent draft, OEHHA relies solely on the results of the small industry-funded human study and uses an inadequate uncertainty factor of only three to account for such considerable uncertainties as the variability between individuals, extrapolating from short-term exposure to long-term exposure, extrapolating from the study population to the population of concern and questions of whether perchlorate concentrates in breast milk. (OEHHA 2002.) Of the 35 other Public Health Goals OEHHA has developed for other contaminants, only four have used uncertainity factors of less than 30. Of those four, one is an essential nutrient (copper), one is deliberately added to water (flouride), and the other two have extensive databases on chronic human effects (lead and nitrate).

In developing its provisional reference dose, the EPA has used a wide base of short-and medium-term animal studies which look at the populations of concern, rather than relying on the single short-term human used by OEHHA. The EPA has also proposed an uncertainty factor of 300 — which, given the considerable uncertainty remaining, still may not be large enough. However, the EPA continues to assert that infant body weight and drinking water figures do not need to be used in the calculation of a drinking water standard. (EPA 2002, EPA 2003.) This is unacceptable.

Neither the EPA nor OEHHA have taken into account the numerous common anti-thyroid chemicals that may worsen the effects of perchlorate, notably the drinking water contaminant nitrate. Neither the EPA nor OEHHA seem to be concerned that epidemiological studies have found effects on infant thyroid hormone levels at about the same perchlorate concentrations which have been proposed as a drinking water standard. And neither have the EPA nor OEHHA adequately taken into consideration the extra perchlorate that may be consumed by eating food grown with contaminated water or fertilizer. (EWG 2002.) To adequately protect the health of the nation’s children a drinking water standard for perchlorate must be set no higher than 0.1 part per billion.

 

 

 

Table 1. There are hundreds of perchlorate-contaminated drinking water sources in California.

County

Contaminated water sources (1)

Contaminated water systems (1)

Maximum perchlorate level detected (ppb) (2)

Contaminated sources still active (2)

Average level (ppb) in contaminated active sources (2)

Los Angeles

127

37

159

107

12.1

Orange

15

7

10.7

12

6.3

Riverside

49

8

65

40

9.7

Sacramento

13

3

400

0

-

San Bernardino

78

16

820

50

18.3

San Diego

1

1

4.7

1

4.5

Santa Clara (3)

133

4

8.5

3

6.2

Sonoma

1

1

5

1

4.5

Tulare

7

3

9.1

1

5.8

Ventura

2

1

20

2

11.6

Statewide

426

81

820

217

8.7

Source: EWG 2003

Table 1 notes:

  1. California Department of Health Services (CADHS). 2003. California’s experience with perchlorate in drinking water. February 5, 2003. http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/ddwem/chemicals/perchl/monitoringupdate.htm
  2. Sweeney, F. 2003. Contamination may have spread; more San Martin wells to be tested. February 23, 2003. San Jose Mercury News.
  3. EWG analysis of California Department of Health Services (CADHS) drinking water quality database from June 2002 (CADHS 2002).
  4. Number includes 4 public drinking water wells and 129 private wells. A large new perchlorate plume in the San Martin area of Santa Clara County was discovered in late 2002, but testing of all potentially affected wells has not been completed. Wells that tested positive for perchlorate contamination but had concentrations lower than the "reporting limit" of 4 ppb were not included in this number.

 

Table 2. More than 20 million people drink perchlorate-contaminated water from the Colorado River.

State

County

Population drinking Colorado River water (1)

Arizona

Maricopa

2,458,000

 

Mohave

43,000

 

Pima

15,044

 

Pinal

46,281

 

Yuma

119,182

California

Imperial

10,300

 

Los Angeles

8,898,633

 

Orange

2,737,176

 

Riverside

954,000

 

San Bernardino

700,000

 

San Diego

2,800,000

 

Ventura

517,000

Nevada

Clark

1,384,505

Total

 

20,683,121

(1) Underestimate: Does not include systems with fewer than 2,500 customers or those serving Native American tribes.

Table 2 notes

  1. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003a. Safe Drinking Water Information System. http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/sdwis/sdwis_ov.html.
  2. Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD). 2002. Member agency profiles. http://www.mwd.dst.ca.us/mwdh2o/pages/memberag/member02.html

 

Table 3. Outside California, more than 100 drinking water sources in 19 states are known to be contaminated with perchlorate.

State

Location

Number of contaminated sources

Maximum concentration (ppb)*

 

Colorado River

 

9

 

Lake Mead

 

24

AL

Escambia County: Atmore Utility Board

2

8.9

AZ

Maricopa County

(1)

(4)

AZ

La Paz County: Brooke Water-Lakeside

3

6

GA

Oconee County: Oconee Co.- Watkinsville

1

38

GA

Houston County: Feagin Mill

1

5.2

IA

Clinton

(3)

(6)

IN

Greenwood

(1)

(4)

MA

Bourne

2

0.4

MD

Aberdeen

3

2

MD

Hagerstown

1

4

MN

Rice County: Northfield Water

1

6.02

MN

Ramsey County: New Brighton Water

1

4.54

NC

Nash County: Vick's MHP

2

6.2

NE

Lewiston

1

5

NJ

Middlesex County: Middlesex Water Co

3

7.1

NM

Clovis

(1)

(4)

NM

Near eastern border of state

7

7.1

NV

Clark County: Mohave Generating Station

3

6.8

NY

Westhampton

1

16

NY

Yaphank

1

24

NY

Nassau County: Plainview WD

5

11

NY

Nassau County: Bethpage WD

3

5

PA

Yardley

(1)

(5)

PA

Lancaster County: Columbia Water Co

1

12.1

PA

Crawford County: Meadville Area Water Authority

1

32.7

PA

Huntington County: Huntington Boro Water Dept

1

6.7

PA

Berks County: Muhlenberg Town Municipal Authority

1

4

TX

Midland, Hockley, Gaines, Dawson, Glascock, Martin, Andrews, Ector, and Howard Counties

47 systems**

32

UT

Magna

1

16

UT

Promontory

1

42

VA

Accomack County: Perdue Farms Inc

1

4.3

WA

Puyallup

4

8

WA

Pierce County: Lakewood WD

2

6

*Parentheses indicates unconfirmed detections. PPB = parts per billion.
**Number of contaminated sources in these systems not available

Source: EWG 2003

Table 3 notes:

  1. Associated Press (AP). 2002. High levels of chemical found in West Texas drinking water. April 23, 2002.
  2. Clean Water Report (CWR). 2002. Possible perchlorate lessons to learn as pollutant progresses to city wells; Maryland. August 12, 2002.
  3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2001. Memorandum re: Perchlorate occurrence table and maps. March 2, 2001.
  4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003b. Data downloaded from EPA’s Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule database. Data as of January 2003. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/data/ucmrgetdata.html.
  5. Gullick, RW; Lechevallier, MW; Barhorst, TS. 2001. Occurrence of perchlorate in drinking water sources. American Water Works Association Journal. Jan 2001: 66-76.
  6. Rogers, K. 2003. Company seeks help with cleanup. Las Vegas Review-Journal. January 11, 2003.
  7. Sweeney, F. 2003. Contamination may have spread; more San Martin wells to be tested. February 23, 2003. San Jose Mercury News.

 

Table 4. More than 50 sites nationwide have high levels of perchlorate contamination of ground water or soil.

State

City

Facility

Source of contamination

Type of contamination

Maximum concentration (ppb)

AL

Huntsville

Redstone Arsenal
Missile Plant

Explosives
production

Ground Water

19,000

AZ

Benson

Apache Nitrogen Products

Explosives manufacturing

Ground Water

670

AZ

Chandler, Gila River Indian Reservation

Aerodyne

Propellant testing

Ground Water

18

AZ

Tucson

Davis Monthan Air Force Base

Explosives/
propellant disposal

Soil

NA

AZ

Goodyear, Phoenix Goodyear Airport

Unidynamics Phoenix, Inc.

Explosives/
ordnance manufacturing

Ground Water

80

AZ

Phoenix

Universal Propulsion

Rocket manufacturing

Soil

NA

AZ

Maricopa County

Unidynamics Phoenix, Inc. White Tanks Disposal Area

Explosives/
ordnance disposal

Soil

NA

AR

East Camden

Atlantic Research

Rocket manufacturing
and disposal- open burn/open detonation

Ground Water

2,000,000

 

 

 

 

Surface Water

480,000

 

 

 

 

Soil

1,000,000

CA

Glen Avon

Grand Central Rocket

Dumping at Stringfellow toxic waste dump

Ground Water

87,000

CA

Yuba City

Beale AFB

Titan missile production

 

NA

CA

Rancho Cordova and Mather Air Force Base

Aerojet General

Rocket manufacturing

Ground Water

640,000

CA

Lincoln

Alpha explosives

Explosives manufacturing

Ground Water

67,000

CA

Santa Susana

Boeing/Rocketdyne, NASA at Santa Susana Field Lab US DOE

Rocket research, testing and production

Ground Water

750

CA

Edwards

Edwards Air Force Base, Jet Propulsion Lab, North Base

Rocket research

Ground Water

300

CA

Orange County

El Toro Marine Corps Air Station

Explosives disposal

Ground Water

380

CA

Tracy

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

US Department of Energy explosives research

Ground Water

84

CA

Redlands

Lockheed Propulsion

Rocket manufacturing

Ground Water

NA

CA

Pasadena

NASA Jet Propulsion Lab

Rocket research

Ground Water

6,000

CA

Rialto

B.F. Goodrich and/or Fireworks Facility

Rocket research and manufacturing and/or fireworks manufacture

Ground Water

NA

CA

Glendale

Grand Central Rocket

Rocket manufacturing

Ground Water

84

CA

Baldwin Park

Aerojet General

Rocket manufacturing

Ground Water

2,180

CA

San Nicholas Island, Ventura County

US Navy Firing Range

Explosives

Ground Water

NA

CA

San Jose

United Technologies (UTC)

Rocket testing

Ground Water

180,000

CA

Santa Clarita

Whittaker-Bermite Ordnance

Ordnance manufacturing

Surface Water

3,000

CA

Hollister

Whittaker Ordnance

Ordnance manufacturing

Ground Water

810

IA

Ewart

Unknown

Unknown

Ground Water

29

IA

Napier

Unknown

Unknown

Ground Water

10

KS

Herington

Ammunition Facility

Ammunition

Ground Water

9

MA

Bourne

Massachusetts Military Reservation

Rocket disposal- open burn/open detonation

Ground Water

300

MD

Indian Head

Naval Surface Warfare Center

Propellant handling

Surface Water

>1000

MD

Aberdeen

Aberdeen Proving Ground

Unknown

Ground Water

24

MO

Joplin

ICI Explosives

Unknown

Ground Water

107,000

MO

Independence

Lake City Army Ammunition Facility

Ammunition

Ground Water

79

NE

Mead

Unknown

Fireworks facility

Ground Water

24

NM

Gallup

Fort Windgate Depot Activity

Explosives disposal

Ground Water

2,860

NM

Alamogordo

Hollomon Air Force Base

Rocket testing

Ground Water

40

 

 

 

 

Surface Water

16,000

NM

Los Alamos

Los Alamos National Lab

US DOE lab chemicals

Ground Water

1,662

 

 

 

 

Surface Water

NA

NM

White Rock

Los Alamos National Lab

US DOE lab chemicals

Surface Water

9

NM

Melrose

Melrose Air Force Range

Explosives

Ground Water

25

NM

White Sands

White Sands Missile Range

Rocket testing

Ground Water

21,000

NV

Henderson

Kerr-McGee/BMI

Perchlorate manufacturing

Ground Water

3,700,000

 

 

 

 

Surface Water

120,000

NV

Henderson

American Pacific Corp/PEPCON

Perchlorate manufacturing

Ground Water

600,000

NY

Westhampton

Unknown

Unknown

Ground Water

3370

NY

Yaphank

Unknown

Unknown

Ground Water

122

TX

Karnak

Longhorn Army Ammunition Depot

Munitions manufacture, Propellant handling

Ground Water

169,000

 

 

 

 

Surface Water

11,000

TX

McGregor

McGregor Naval Weapons Plant

Propellant handling

Ground Water

91,000

 

 

 

 

Surface Water

22,000

TX

Amarillo

Pantex (Department of Energy)

Open burning/ Open detonation, Explosives

Ground Water

5

TX

Texarkana

Red River Army Depot

Open burning/ Open detonation, Propellant handling

Ground Water

80

TX

Texarkana

Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant

Open burning/ Open detonation, Propellant handling

Ground Water

NA

UT

Magna

Alliant Tech Systems

Rocket manufacturing

Ground Water

13

UT

Kennecott

Alliant Tech Systems

Rocket manufacturing

Ground Water

5

UT

Promontory

Thiokol

Rocket manufacturing

Ground Water

NA

WA

near Vancouver

Camp Bonneville

Explosives/propellant disposal

Soil

NA

WV

Rocket Center

Allegheny Ballistics Lab

Rocket research production, open burn/open detonation

Surface Water

400

NA = not available.
Source: EWG 2003

Table 4 notes:

  1. Associated Press (AP). 2003. Army wants company to pay for Redstone cleanup. January 20, 2003.
  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ND. Public Health Assessment: Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant. Karnack, Harrison County, Texas.
  3. Citizens for Safe Water Around Badger (CFSWAB). 2002. The potential for perchlorate contamination. A case study: Badger Army Ammunition Plant. May 2002. Merrimac, WI.
  4. Clean Water Report (CWR). 2002. Possible perchlorate lessons to learn as pollutant progresses to city wells; Maryland. August 12, 2002.
  5. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2001. Memorandum re: Perchlorate occurrence table and maps. March 2, 2001.
  6. McGuire, K. 2001. Rocket fuel peril studied Arkansas site's concentration among top in US. The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, August 12, 2001.
  7. Oswald, M. 2002. Springs tested for chemical. Albuquerque Journal. January 29, 2002.
  8. Robertson, J. 2003. Another toxin found in wells at Lake City cleanup site. Kansas City Star. January 28, 2003.
  9. Speckman, S. 2001. Plume of 'dirty' water is moving. The Desert News. June 18, 200.
  10. Tollefson, J. 2003. Contaminated spring found near LANL. The Santa Fe New Mexican, February 9, 2003.

 

Table 5. At least 162 sites in 36 states have known manufacturers or users of perchlorate.

 

 

State

 

 

 

City

 

 

 

Facility

 

 

 

Activity

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

Bessemer

 

 

 

Hercules/Alliant Techsystems

 

 

 

Munitions, Propellant Supply

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

Huntsville

 

 

 

Marshall Space Flight Center

 

 

 

Rocket Research

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

Huntsville

 

 

 

Thiokol (former); Army Aviation & Missile Command

 

 

 

Rocket Motor Mfg.

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

Parrish

 

 

 

Boren-Ireco Co.

 

 

 

Explosives

 

 

 

AR

 

 

 

East Camden

 

 

 

Atlantic Research Corp.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg., Disposal-OB/OD

 

 

 

AR

 

 

 

Midland

 

 

 

Austin Powder Co

 

 

 

Explosives

 

 

 

AR

 

 

 

Pine Bluff

 

 

 

Pine Bluff Arsenal (US Army)

 

 

 

Pyrotechnic/ Munitions Mfg.

 

 

 

AR

 

 

 

Woodbury

 

 

 

HiTech

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Benson

 

 

 

Apache Powder Co.

 

 

 

Explosive Mfg.

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Mesa

 

 

 

Talley Defense Systems, Inc., Mesa

 

 

 

Propellant Mfg.

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Phoenix

 

 

 

Universal Propulsion Co., Inc.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Tempe

 

 

 

Aerodyne Corp.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Tucson

 

 

 

Davis Monthan Air Force Base

 

 

 

Propellant/Explosives Disposal

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Yuma

 

 

 

Yuma Proving Ground (US Army)

 

 

 

Rocket Testing

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Alisa Viejo

 

 

 

G.G. Industries

 

 

 

Propellant Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Azusa

 

 

 

Aerojet General Corp.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Baldwin Park

 

 

 

Aerojet General Corp.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Barstow

 

 

 

Mojave Pyrotechnics

 

 

 

Fireworks

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

China Lake

 

 

 

Naval Air Weapons Station, China Lake

 

 

 

Rocket Research/ Testing

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Concord

 

 

 

Weapons Support Facility, Seal Beach

 

 

 

Weapons Storage

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Culver City

 

 

 

Western Electrochemical (American Pacific)

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Edwards

 

 

 

Edwards AFB/Jet Propulsion Lab

 

 

 

Rocket Research and Testing

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Fallbrook

 

 

 

Weapons Support Facility, Seal Beach

 

 

 

Weapons Storage

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Gardena

 

 

 

TOPTH Inc.

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Herlong

 

 

 

Sierra Army Depot

 

 

 

Munitions

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Hollister

 

 

 

FMC

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Hollister

 

 

 

Whittaker Ordnance

 

 

 

Missile Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Ione

 

 

 

M.P. Associates

 

 

 

Pyrotechnic Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Lincoln

 

 

 

Alpha Explosives

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Llano

 

 

 

Odee Mfg. Co.

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Long Beach

 

 

 

TOPTH Inc.

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Middletown

 

 

 

Reynolds Systems Inc. /FMC

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Morgan Hill

 

 

 

Olin Corporation

 

 

 

Flare and Ammunition Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Ontario

 

 

 

Dynamic Propellant

 

 

 

Propellant Mfg. (?)

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Pasadena

 

 

 

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA)

 

 

 

Rocket Testing

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Pomona

 

 

 

US Rocket

 

 

 

Rockets: Hobby Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Rancho Cordova

 

 

 

Aerojet General Corp.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Redlands

 

 

 

Lockheed Propulsion Company (Former)

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Rialto

 

 

 

Astro Pyrotechnics

 

 

 

Theatrical Pyrotechnics Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Riverside

 

 

 

McKesson Chemical Co.

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg. ?

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

San Diego

 

 

 

Space Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

 

 

 

Weapons Research

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

San Jose

 

 

 

Pratt & Whitney Space Propulsion (United Technologies)

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Santa Clarita

 

 

 

Whittaker-Bermite Ordnance

 

 

 

Ordnance Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Saugus

 

 

 

Bermite Division., Whittaker corp.

 

 

 

Ordnance Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Saugus

 

 

 

Hi-Shear Technology Corp.

 

 

 

Defense Pyrotechnics

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Torrance

 

 

 

Hi-Shear Industries

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Tracy

 

 

 

Lawrence Nat'l Lab, DOE Experimental Site 300

 

 

 

Explosives Research

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Vandenberg AFB

 

 

 

Vandenberg AFB

 

 

 

Rocket Testing/ Launching

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Windsor

 

 

 

Starflight Space Technologies

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

CO

 

 

 

Colorado Springs

 

 

 

Vulcan Systems Inc. (Former)

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

CO

 

 

 

Englewood

 

 

 

Gateway Safety Products

 

 

 

Industrial Protective Gear

 

 

 

CO

 

 

 

Penrose

 

 

 

Estes Industries, Inc. / Vulcan Systems Inc.

 

 

 

Hobby Rocket Mfg

 

 

 

CO

 

 

 

Whitewater

 

 

 

KSI Inc.

 

 

 

Aerospace (?)

 

 

 

FL

 

 

 

Brooksville

 

 

 

Thermex Energy

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg

 

 

 

FL

 

 

 

Cape Canaveral

 

 

 

Patrick Air Force Base

 

 

 

Rocket Launch Site

 

 

 

FL

 

 

 

Hollywood

 

 

 

CCT

 

 

 

Rocket Launch Site

 

 

 

FL

 

 

 

Niceville

 

 

 

Eglin Air Force Base

 

 

 

Munitions Testing

 

 

 

FL

 

 

 

Tampa

 

 

 

Girindus

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

GA

 

 

 

Byron

 

 

 

ICI Americas Inc.

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg

 

 

 

ID

 

 

 

Pocatello

 

 

 

Firefox Enterprises

 

 

 

Chemical Retailer

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

Danville

 

 

 

World /Star Fireworks

 

 

 

Fireworks

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

Edwardsville

 

 

 

Propellex Corp.

 

 

 

Military Explosives

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

Joliet

 

 

 

Talley Defense Systems (former)

 

 

 

Propellant Mfg.

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

Marion

 

 

 

Olin Corp (currently Primex)

 

 

 

Explosives Storage/Mfg.

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

Savanna

 

 

 

JOCG - U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center

 

 

 

Explosives/Munitions Training

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

South Beloit

 

 

 

Orion Safety Products

 

 

 

Warning Flares Production

 

 

 

IN

 

 

 

Crane

 

 

 

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division

 

 

 

Missile/ Pyrotechnic Storage/Mfg.

 

 

 

IN

 

 

 

Kingsbury

 

 

 

Melrose Pyrotechnics Inc.

 

 

 

Fireworks

 

 

 

IN

 

 

 

Peru

 

 

 

Olin Corp

 

 

 

Sporting Ammunition

 

 

 

KS

 

 

 

Hallowell

 

 

 

Slurry Explosives Corp.

 

 

 

Explosives

 

 

 

KS

 

 

 

Herington

 

 

 

Pyrodex Corp.

 

 

 

Sporting Ammunition

 

 

 

LA

 

 

 

New Orleans

 

 

 

Bartlett Chemicals Inc.

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

MD

 

 

 

Aberdeen

 

 

 

Aberdeen Proving Ground (US Army)

 

 

 

Weapon Testing/Research

 

 

 

MD

 

 

 

Cumberland

 

 

 

Allied Tech

 

 

 

Aerospace ?

 

 

 

MD

 

 

 

Elkton

 

 

 

Cordant Technologies, Inc.

 

 

 

Rocket Propulsion Technology

 

 

 

MD

 

 

 

Elkton

 

 

 

Elkton Sparkler Fireworks Mfg. Co.

 

 

 

Mfg & Wholesale Fireworks

 

 

 

MD

 

 

 

Indian Head

 

 

 

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division

 

 

 

Propellant Mfg.

 

 

 

MD

 

 

 

Silver Springs

 

 

 

Naval Surface Warfare Center, White Oak

 

 

 

Explosives Research

 

 

 

MD

 

 

 

West Bethesda

 

 

 

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division

 

 

 

Rocket Testing

 

 

 

MI

 

 

 

Ishpeming

 

 

 

Ireco

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

MN

 

 

 

Biwabik

 

 

 

Nitrochem Energy Group - Thermex

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg ?

 

 

 

MN

 

 

 

Foley

 

 

 

Aerial Arts

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

MN

 

 

 

Gilbert

 

 

 

Cook Slurry Co.

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

MO

 

 

 

Joplin

 

 

 

ICI Explosives USA Inc.

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

MS

 

 

 

Columbus

 

 

 

Hooker Chemical, Foote Mineral (now Eka Nobel)

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

MS

 

 

 

Iuka

 

 

 

GenCorp - Aerojet (Former)

 

 

 

Rocket Research

 

 

 

MS

 

 

 

Iuka

 

 

 

Yellow Creek Production Facility (NASA/Thiokol)

 

 

 

Rocket Research

 

 

 

NC

 

 

 

Greensboro

 

 

 

Vick Chemical (former)

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

NC

 

 

 

Mcleansville

 

 

 

Gulf Oil/Thermex Energy

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg ?

 

 

 

NC

 

 

 

Riegelwood

 

 

 

Wright Chemical, Atlas Powder

 

 

 

Explosives

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

Fargo

 

 

 

Starr Display Fireworks

 

 

 

Fireworks Mfg.

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

Kindred

 

 

 

Dakota Pyrotechnics Inc.

 

 

 

Fireworks Mfg.

 

 

 

NJ

 

 

 

Newark

 

 

 

Fairmount Chemical Co Inc.

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

NJ

 

 

 

Newfield

 

 

 

Shieldalloy Corp.

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

NJ

 

 

 

Orange

 

 

 

H. Reisman Corp

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

NJ

 

 

 

Morris County

 

 

 

Picatinny Arsenal (US Army)

 

 

 

Explosives Research, Mfg., Disposal

 

 

 

NJ

 

 

 

South Plainfield

 

 

 

Hummel Chemical Co.

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

NM

 

 

 

Las Cruces

 

 

 

White Sands Missile Range (NASA/NASA)

 

 

 

Rocket Testing

 

 

 

NM

 

 

 

Los Alamos

 

 

 

Los Alamos National Laboratory DOE

 

 

 

Lab Chemical

 

 

 

NM

 

 

 

Roswell

 

 

 

Longhorn Manufacturing

 

 

 

Fireworks

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Fernley

 

 

 

BOKMA Resources

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Hawthorne

 

 

 

Hawthorne Army Depot

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Henderson

 

 

 

Kerr-McGee Chemical

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Henderson

 

 

 

PEPCON (aka American Pacific)

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Las Vegas

 

 

 

AeroTech / Industrial Solid Propulsion Inc.

 

 

 

Rocket Research

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Lockwood

 

 

 

Largo Marsino

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Sparks

 

 

 

Hi-Shear Industries

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

NY

 

 

 

Brooklyn

 

 

 

Witco Corp.

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

NY

 

 

 

Delanson

 

 

 

Atlas Advance Pyrotechnics

 

 

 

Fireworks

 

 

 

NY

 

 

 

Mineola

 

 

 

Island Pyrotechnical

 

 

 

Fireworks

 

 

 

NY

 

 

 

Niagara Falls

 

 

 

Hooker Chemicals

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Columbus

 

 

 

GFS Chemicals, Inc.

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Fostoria

 

 

 

Standard RWY Fusee

 

 

 

Flare Mfg.

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Lisbon

 

 

 

Hilltop Energy (AnGel)

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Marietta

 

 

 

Servo Dynamics

 

 

 

Creators of Propellant Gas Petroleum Extraction

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Steubenille

 

 

 

Barium & Chemicals, Inc.

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

OK

 

 

 

Claremore

 

 

 

Cardox Corp

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

OK

 

 

 

McAlester

 

 

 

McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Ammunition/ Explosives Storage

 

 

 

OR

 

 

 

Portland

 

 

 

Elf Atochem North America

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Chambersburg

 

 

 

Letterkenny Army Depot

 

 

 

Missile/Ammo Storage/Maintenance

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Hatfield

 

 

 

Aerial Arts

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Kittanning

 

 

 

Kesco Inc.

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Mechanicsburg

 

 

 

Naval Inventory Control Point, Mechanicsburg

 

 

 

Weapons Distribution

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Mt. Carmel

 

 

 

Explo-Tech Inc. (AnGel)

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Philadelphia

 

 

 

Naval SWC, Carderock Division, SSES Philadelphia

 

 

 

Propellant Handling

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Tamaqua

 

 

 

Atlas Powder Co.

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Telford

 

 

 

Service Chemical

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

SC

 

 

 

Columbia

 

 

 

Phillips Components

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

TN

 

 

 

Louisville

 

 

 

AnGel (?DYNO Southeast Inc)

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

TN

 

 

 

Toone

 

 

 

Alliant Techsystems, Kilgore Corp.

 

 

 

Propulsion/Munitions Mfg.

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Corpus Christi

 

 

 

Servo-Dynamics Inc.

 

 

 

Explosives

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Karnack

 

 

 

Longhorn Army Ammunition

 

 

 

Propellant Handling

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Kennedale

 

 

 

Harrison Jet Guns

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Mansfield

 

 

 

Shaped Charge Specialist Inc.

 

 

 

Explosives

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Marshall

 

 

 

RTF Industries Inc.

 

 

 

Pyrotechnic Mfg.

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

McGregor

 

 

 

Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Rosharon

 

 

 

Schlumberger

 

 

 

Explosives

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Waco

 

 

 

M & M Chemical

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Brigham City

 

 

 

Thiokol

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Cedar City

 

 

 

AeroTech / Industrial Solid Propulsion Inc.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Cedar City

 

 

 

Western Electrochemical (American Pacific Corp)

 

 

 

Chemical Mfg.

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Dugway

 

 

 

Dugway Proving Ground (US Army)

 

 

 

Rocket Testing

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Lehi

 

 

 

Dyno Nobel Inc.

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg, Research, Testing

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Magna

 

 

 

Bacchus Works, Alliant Techsystems, Inc.

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Ogden

 

 

 

Autoliv Inc.

 

 

 

Auto Air Bags

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Ogden

 

 

 

Defense Depot Utah

 

 

 

Chemical Distribution

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Ogden

 

 

 

Hill AFB

 

 

 

Missile Maintenance, propellant testing

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Thiokol

 

 

 

Thiokol

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg. Waste Discharge

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Tooele

 

 

 

Tooele Army Depot

 

 

 

Ammunition storage, Mfg, Repair, open burning

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

West Valley City

 

 

 

Alliant Tech, Niro Plant

 

 

 

Rocket Research/ Testing

 

 

 

VA

 

 

 

Duffield

 

 

 

Paige Ireco (formerly Gibson Explosives) (Dyno Nobel)

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

VA

 

 

 

Gainsville

 

 

 

Atlantic Research Corp

 

 

 

Rocket Research/Mfg

 

 

 

VA

 

 

 

Radford

 

 

 

Radford Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

VA

 

 

 

Yorktown

 

 

 

Naval Weapons Station-Yorktown

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

WA

 

 

 

Olympia

 

 

 

Ireco (Alaska Pacific Powder Co)

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

 

 

WA

 

 

 

Port Hadlock

 

 

 

Weapons Support Facility, Seal Beach

 

 

 

Ammunition Storage, Distribution

 

 

 

WI

 

 

 

Delafield

 

 

 

Bartolotta Fireworks

 

 

 

Fireworks Mfg.

 

 

 

WV

 

 

 

Newell

 

 

 

Newell Specialties

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

WV

 

 

 

Rocket Center

 

 

 

Alliant Tech; Naval Ordnance, Allegheny Ballistics

Lab

 

 

 

Rocket Mfg.

 

 

 

WV

 

 

 

Romney

 

 

 

Appalachian Explosives (AnGel)

 

 

 

Unknown

 

 

 

WY

 

 

 

Mills

 

 

 

Thermex Energy

 

 

 

Explosives Mfg.

 

Source: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2001. Memorandum re: Perchlorate occurrence table and maps. March 2, 2001.

 

Table 6. Perchlorate testing is urgently needed at 63 Department of Defense sites.

 

 

State

 

 

 

City

 

 

 

Facility

 

 

 

Why testing needed

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

Childersburg

 

 

 

Alabama Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Munitions production

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

Anniston

 

 

 

Anniston Air Force base

 

 

 

Ammunition/ missile maintenance and storage

 

 

 

AR

 

 

 

East Camden

 

 

 

Shumaker Ordnance Plant/ Camden Naval Ordnance Plant,

US Naval Ammunition Depot

 

 

 

Mfg, testing, disposal of ammunitions, explosives and

rockets

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Tucson

 

 

 

Air Force Plant 44

 

 

 

Missile production, explosives storage

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Flagstaff

 

 

 

Camp Navajo, Navajo Depot Activity

 

 

 

Ammunition/explosives disposal, rocket/missile maintenance

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Pinal County

 

 

 

Florence Military Reservation

 

 

 

Explosive ordnance disposal

 

 

 

AZ

 

 

 

Gila Bend

 

 

 

Barry M. Goldwater Range

 

 

 

Rocket, ordnance testing

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Modesto

 

 

 

Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Ammunition plant

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Fresno

 

 

 

Fresno Air National Guard Base

 

 

 

Munitions storage area

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Burbank

 

 

 

Air Force Plant 14

 

 

 

Missile production

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Point Magu

 

 

 

Naval Air Weapons Station

 

 

 

Missile testing

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Alameda and San Joaquin Counties

 

 

 

Lawrence Livermore National Labs Site 300

 

 

 

Explosives testing, open burn/detonation

 

 

 

CA

 

 

 

Rancho Cordova

 

 

 

Air Force Plant 70

 

 

 

Rocket mfg.

 

 

 

CO

 

 

 

Denver

 

 

 

Lowry Air Force Base

 

 

 

Solid rocket fuel used on base

 

 

 

HI

 

 

 

Western Oahu

 

 

 

Makua Military Reservation

 

 

 

Open burn/detonation of ordnance

 

 

 

IA

 

 

 

Middletown

 

 

 

Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Munitions/ explosives mfg, testing, disposal

 

 

 

ID

 

 

 

Mountain Home

 

 

 

Mountain Home AFB

 

 

 

Titan missile production, maintenance, munitions storage

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

Near Chicago

 

 

 

Joliet Army Ammunitions Plant

 

 

 

Burning and demolition of explosives

 

 

 

IL

 

 

 

Savanna

 

 

 

Savanna Army Depot

 

 

 

Storage/disposal of munitions/explosives

 

 

 

IL/IA

 

 

 

Rock Island/Davenport

 

 

 

Rock Island Arsenal

 

 

 

Ordnance mfg. - largest weapons mfg arsenal in western

world

 

 

 

IN

 

 

 

Bloomington

 

 

 

NSWC Crane Division

 

 

 

Explosive disposal, ammunitions production, storage

 

 

 

IN

 

 

 

Charlestown

 

 

 

Indiana Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Rocket propellant plant

 

 

 

IN

 

 

 

Madison

 

 

 

Jefferson Range/ Jefferson Proving Ground

 

 

 

Rocket testing

 

 

 

KS

 

 

 

Parson

 

 

 

Kansas Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Burning and demolition of explosives

 

 

 

KS

 

 

 

Kansas City

 

 

 

Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Powder plant

 

 

 

KY

 

 

 

Richmond

 

 

 

Blue Grass Chemical Activity

 

 

 

Rocket/munitions storage/disposal

 

 

 

LA

 

 

 

Shreveport

 

 

 

Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Ammunition plant

 

 

 

MA

 

 

 

Watertown

 

 

 

Army Materials Technology Laboratory/ Waterman Arsenal

 

 

 

Munitions development, testing

 

 

 

MI

 

 

 

Hanson

 

 

 

Camp Grayling

 

 

 

Ammunition supply point

 

 

 

MN

 

 

 

St Paul

 

 

 

Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Ammunition production and demilitarization

 

 

 

MO

 

 

 

St Louis

 

 

 

St Louis Army Ammunition Plant, St Louis Ordnance Plant

 

 

 

Munitions plant

 

 

 

MO

 

 

 

Neosho

 

 

 

Camp Crowder, Air Force Plant 65

 

 

 

Test-firing rocket engines

 

 

 

MS

 

 

 

Slidell

 

 

 

Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Munitions production

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

Minot

 

 

 

Minot AFB

 

 

 

Missile production and testing

 

 

 

NE

 

 

 

Grand Island

 

 

 

Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Munitions production

 

 

 

NE

 

 

 

Omaha

 

 

 

Offutt AFB

 

 

 

Missile production testing

 

 

 

NM

 

 

 

Albuquerque

 

 

 

Kirtland AFB

 

 

 

Rocket research

 

 

 

NM

 

 

 

Alamogordo

 

 

 

Holloman AFB

 

 

 

Missile testing

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Las Vegas

 

 

 

Nellie AFB

 

 

 

Munitions storage

 

 

 

NV

 

 

 

Tonopah

 

 

 

Tonopah Test Range

 

 

 

Explosives testing

 

 

 

NY

 

 

 

Buffalo

 

 

 

Air Force Plant 38

 

 

 

Rocket motors (construction support)

 

 

 

NY

 

 

 

Watervliet

 

 

 

Watervliet Arsenal

 

 

 

Rocket motor/artillery production

 

 

 

NY

 

 

 

Romulus

 

 

 

Seneca Army Depot

 

 

 

Ammunition/explosives/missile burning

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Ravenna

 

 

 

Ravenna Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Explosives mfg. and ammunitions demilitarization

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Scranton

 

 

 

Scranton Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Ammunition plant

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

Cleveland

 

 

 

NASA Glenn Research Center

 

 

 

Perchlorate/propulsion research

 

 

 

OK

 

 

 

McAlester

 

 

 

McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Munitions manufacture, rocket production

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Chambersburg

 

 

 

Letterkenny Army Center

 

 

 

Missile/ammunition storage, testing, maintenance, disposal

 

 

 

PA

 

 

 

Tobyhanna

 

 

 

Tobyhanna Army Depot

 

 

 

Missile maintenance/ repair

 

 

 

SC

 

 

 

Sumter

 

 

 

Poinsett Range, Shaw AFB

 

 

 

Open burn/detonation for waste munitions

 

 

 

SD

 

 

 

Rapid City

 

 

 

Ellsworth AFB

 

 

 

Titan missile production

 

 

 

TN

 

 

 

Kingsport

 

 

 

Holston Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Explosives and propellant production

 

 

 

TN

 

 

 

Tullahoma

 

 

 

Arnold Engineering Development Center

 

 

 

Rocket testing

 

 

 

TN

 

 

 

Milan

 

 

 

Milan Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Ammunitions testing and storage

 

 

 

TN

 

 

 

Chattanooga

 

 

 

Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Explosives mfg.

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Abilene

 

 

 

Dyess AFB

 

 

 

Missile production (Atlas), testing (Minuteman)

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Boerne

 

 

 

Camp Stanley Storage Activity

 

 

 

Munitions production, testing, maintenance

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

Fort Worth

 

 

 

Air Force Plant 4

 

 

 

Produces missile components

 

 

 

TX

 

 

 

San Antonio

 

 

 

Kelly AFB

 

 

 

Propellant handling

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Brigham City

 

 

 

Air Force Plant 78

 

 

 

Rocket motor and missile mfg.

 

 

 

UT

 

 

 

Ogden

 

 

 

Air Force Plant 77

 

 

 

Rocket motor and missile mfg.

 

 

 

WI

 

 

 

Badger

 

 

 

Badger Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Munitions manufacture

 

 

 

WI

 

 

 

Madison

 

 

 

Badger Army Ammunition Plant

 

 

 

Munitions manufacture

 

Source: EWG 2003

References: 

  1. Argus Research Laboratories, Inc. 1999. Oral (drinking water) two-generation (one litter per generation) reproduction study of ammonium perchlorate in rats. Horsham, PA: Argus Research Laboratories, Inc.; protocol no. 1416-001. As cited in EPA 2002.
  2. Argus Research Laboratories, Inc. 2001. Hormone, thyroid and neurohistological effects of oral (drinking water) exposure to ammonium perchlorate in pregnant and lactating rats and in fetuses and nursing pups exposed to ammonium perchlorate during gestation or via maternal milk. Horsham, PA. As cited in EPA 2002.
  3. Brechner, R. J.; Parkhurst, G. D.; Humble, W. O.; Brown, M. B.; Herman, W. H. 2000. Ammonium perchlorate contamination of Colorado River drinking water is associated with abnormal thyroid function in newborns in Arizona. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 42: 777-782.
  4. Crofton, K. M. 2001. Revised analysis of the thyroid hormone data from the rat developmental "effects" study - Argus protocol 1416-003 [memorandum with attachments to Annie M. Jarabek]. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health Effects and Environmental Research Laboratory; December 14 (revised December 28). As cited in EPA 2002.
  5. Delange F and Ermans AM. 1991. Iodine deficiency. In: The Thyroid. A fundamental and clinical text. Braverman LE, Utiger RD, Eds. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 368-390.
  6. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002. Perchlorate Environmental Contamination: Toxicological Review and Risk Characterization (External Review Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Washington, D.C. NCEA-1-0503.
  7. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003. Memorandum re: Status of EPA’s Interim Assessment Guidance for Perchlorate. January 22, 2003.
  8. Environmental Working Group (EWG). 2002. Rocket Fuel in Lettuce. https://www.ewg.org/research/suspect-salads/
  9. Goleman, W. L.; Carr, J. A.; Anderson, T. A. 2002. Environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonium perchlorate inhibit thyroid function and alter sex ratios in developing Xenopus laevis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21: 590-597.
  10. Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Allan WC, Williams JR, Knight GJ, Gagnon J, O’Heir CE, Mitchell M, Hermos RJ, Waisbren SE, Faix JD, Klein RZ (1999). Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. New England Journal of Medicine. 341:549-555.
  11. Greer MA, Goodman G, Pleus RC, and Greer SE. 2002. Health effects assessment for environmental perchlorate contamination: The dose-response for inhibition of thyroidal radioiodine uptake in humans.
  12. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2002. Draft Public Health Goal for Perchlorate in Drinking Water. Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment California Environmental Protection Agency. March 2002.
  13. Phillips, D. I. W.; Barker, D. J. P.; Fall, C. H. D.; Seckl, J. R.; Whorwood, C. B.; Wood, P. J.; Walker, B. R. 1998. Elevated plasma cortisol concentrations: a link between low birth weight and the insulin resistance syndrome? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83: 757-760.
  14. Pop VJ, Kuijpens JL, van Baar AL, Verkerk G, van Son MM, de Vijlder JJ, Vulsma T, Wiersinga WM, Drexhage HA, Vader HL (1999). Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy. Clin Endocrinol 50:149-155.
  15. Prins, G. S.; Birch, L.; Couse, J. F.; Choi, I.; Katzenellenbogen, B.; Korach, K. S. 2001. Estrogen imprinting of the developing prostate gland is mediated through stromal estrogen receptor a: studies with aERKO and bERKO mice. Cancer Res. 61: 6089-6097.
  16. Schwartz, J. 2001. Gestational exposure to perchlorate is associated with measures of decreased thyroid function in a population of California neonates [thesis]. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
  17. Seckl, J. R. 1997. Glucocorticoids, feto-placental 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, and the early life origins of adult disease. Steroids 62: 89-94.
  18. Versloot, P.M., J.P. Schroder-Van der Elst, D. Van der Heide and L. Boogerd. Effects of marginal iodine deficiency during pregnancy: iodide uptake by the maternal and fetal thyroid. American Journal of Physiology. E1121-E1126.
  19. Yu, K. O. 2000. Consultative letter, AFRL-HE-WP-CL-2000-0038, tissue distribution and inhibition of iodide uptake in the thyroid by perchlorate with corresponding hormonal changes in pregnant and lactating rats (drinking water study) [memorandum with attachment to Annie Jarabek]. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Air Force Research Laboratory; June 28. As cited in EPA 2002.