EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE



City of Staunton

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.823 ppm13130.630 ppm - 0.960 ppm
20130.702 ppm13130.580 ppm - 0.760 ppm
20140.777 ppm13130.440 ppm - 1.03 ppm
20150.718 ppm13130.610 ppm - 1.01 ppm
20160.656 ppm13130.550 ppm - 0.770 ppm
20170.641 ppm12120.540 ppm - 0.820 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-05E1110015310.780 ppm
2012-01-091201641-02A0.630 ppm
2012-02-02E1110015420.760 ppm
2012-03-02E1110015410.710 ppm
2012-04-02E1110015320.790 ppm
2012-05-07E1110015400.690 ppm
2012-06-04E1110015330.900 ppm
2012-07-02E1110015390.920 ppm
2012-08-06E1110015370.890 ppm
2012-09-05E1110015380.920 ppm
2012-10-01E1110015340.960 ppm
2012-11-05E1110015350.840 ppm
2012-12-03E1110015360.910 ppm
2013-01-071301500-01A0.580 ppm
2013-01-07E1211030800.710 ppm
2013-02-04E1211030810.750 ppm
2013-03-04E1211030910.740 ppm
2013-04-01E1211030820.700 ppm
2013-05-06E1211030900.710 ppm
2013-06-03E1211030830.740 ppm
2013-07-01E1211030890.730 ppm
2013-08-05E1211030840.760 ppm
2013-09-09E1211030880.650 ppm
2013-10-07E1211030870.690 ppm
2013-11-04E1211030850.710 ppm
2013-12-02E1211030860.650 ppm
2014-01-0614011301-01A0.440 ppm
2014-01-06E1309026430.720 ppm
2014-02-03E1309026540.680 ppm
2014-03-04E1309026440.680 ppm
2014-04-07E1309026530.690 ppm
2014-05-05E1309026450.730 ppm
2014-06-02E1309026461.03 ppm
2014-07-07E1309026470.960 ppm
2014-08-04E1309026480.960 ppm
2014-09-02E1309026520.940 ppm
2014-10-08E1309026490.830 ppm
2014-11-03E1309026500.730 ppm
2014-12-01E1309026510.710 ppm
2015-01-0500281-REI CONSUL0.720 ppm
2015-01-07VA010-DCLS0.690 ppm
2015-02-02VA010-DCLS0.730 ppm
2015-03-02VA010-DCLS0.740 ppm
2015-04-05VA010-DCLS0.770 ppm
2015-05-02VA010-DCLS0.740 ppm
2015-06-01VA010-DCLS0.660 ppm
2015-07-06VA010-DCLS0.630 ppm
2015-08-03VA010-DCLS0.680 ppm
2015-09-01VA010-DCLS0.730 ppm
2015-10-05VA010-DCLS1.01 ppm
2015-11-01VA010-DCLS0.620 ppm
2015-12-04VA010-DCLS0.610 ppm
2016-01-041601068-01A-I0.550 ppm
2016-01-04E1509082650.710 ppm
2016-02-01E1509082670.670 ppm
2016-03-01E1509082640.720 ppm
2016-04-01E1509082630.670 ppm
2016-05-01E1509082620.660 ppm
2016-06-06E1509082610.750 ppm
2016-07-05E1509082680.770 ppm
2016-08-01E1509082780.630 ppm
2016-09-01E1509082600.550 ppm
2016-10-03E1509082590.620 ppm
2016-11-01E1509082580.640 ppm
2016-12-04E1509082790.590 ppm
2017-01-03E1509082690.550 ppm
2017-01-0317010098-01A0.540 ppm
2017-02-05E1509082810.590 ppm
2017-03-06E1509082800.580 ppm
2017-04-02E1509082740.560 ppm
2017-05-01E1509082710.560 ppm
2017-06-04E1509082720.670 ppm
2017-07-03E1509082760.630 ppm
2017-08-01E1509082700.700 ppm
2017-09-04E1509082750.790 ppm
2017-10-02E1509082730.820 ppm
2017-11-07E1509082770.700 ppm