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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Fluoride

Status: National drinking water standard exists

 

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

2015-2017:

FOUND

50

states detected

28,447

utilities detected

246 million

people served

Health concerns for fluoride

Harm to teeth

Harm to bones

Bone cancer

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

States reporting fluoride in drinking water

UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served
California1,79738,781,257
Texas4,27426,856,404
Florida1,37818,797,997
Illinois1,49810,905,362
Ohio9379,478,735
Georgia1,1889,262,431
North Carolina1,3557,539,992
Pennsylvania5587,314,401
New York7966,861,852
Virginia7576,782,929
Arizona3825,922,249
Colorado7055,396,159
Maryland2915,125,349
Michigan1805,023,992
Louisiana9354,923,139
Missouri8504,913,443
Indiana7004,754,171
Massachusetts2164,620,345
New Jersey1474,572,319
Kentucky3514,332,585
Minnesota7584,297,307
Wisconsin7863,946,028
South Carolina3533,581,462
Alabama1683,463,443
Oklahoma4192,764,061
Utah3102,728,849
Arkansas3892,720,505
Nevada1562,594,676
Kansas6532,581,852
Connecticut2932,565,954
Tennessee832,445,447
Mississippi6702,348,194
Washington4552,297,003
New Mexico5101,833,337
Oregon1251,773,634
Nebraska3831,483,481
West Virginia3371,458,811
Hawaii481,373,153
Delaware112896,038
Iowa288882,503
Idaho162817,049
Rhode Island54766,966
District Of Columbia3648,882
Maine219588,231
Montana422567,458
New Hampshire409500,962
North Dakota196440,253
Wyoming218337,811
Vermont79334,264
Alaska21296,329
South Dakota73295,184
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce fluoride

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of fluoride, 2015-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Bremen Water DepartmentBremen, IN2 of 213.1 ppm4,516
Green Ridge Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association Inc.Tijeras, NM12 of 1210.9 ppm130
American Realty Mortgage CompanyMaricopa, AZ10 of 108.52 ppm56
Csa 51Desert Center, CA1 of 16.90 ppm350
City of Opdyke WestLevelland, TX12 of 126.48 ppm273
Fort Jackson Mobile EstatesLubbock, TX3 of 36.36 ppm61
City of WellmanWellman, TX12 of 126.16 ppm225
Garden Valley Ranchettes HomeownersGarden Valley, ID13 of 135.70 ppm78
Terrells Mobile Home ParkLovington, TX12 of 125.61 ppm70
Southwest Garden WaterLubbock, TX12 of 125.58 ppm375
Wolfforth PlaceWolfforth, TX12 of 125.47 ppm460
San Simon Domestic Water Improvement DistrictSan Simon, AZ12 of 125.41 ppm312
Birdsong WaterworksSuffolk, VA13 of 135.41 ppm71
Borden County Water SystemGail, TX12 of 125.38 ppm300
Seven EstatesWolfforth, TX2 of 25.37 ppm261
Bedford County UD*Shelbyville, TN1 of 15.34 ppm18,722
Quail Valley Water Dist-westside SystemTehachapi, CA15 of 155.28 ppm139
Cox Addition Water SystemLubbock, TX12 of 125.06 ppm126
Grassland Water Supply CorporationTahoka, TX12 of 125.04 ppm55
City of RopesvilleRopesville, TX12 of 125.03 ppm483
Longview AcresSmithfield, VA12 of 125.02 ppm168
Springfield DownsSmithfield, VA14 of 144.99 ppm120
Glen Acres Water Co-opLordsburg, NM12 of 124.94 ppm185
Loop Water Supply CorporationLoop, TX12 of 124.83 ppm300
Hobson ArtesianSuffolk, VA11 of 114.83 ppm70
City of Seagraves*Seagraves, TX21 of 214.82 ppm2,196
Rescue WaterworksRescue, VA13 of 134.79 ppm203
Ironwood CampNewberry Springs, CA15 of 154.77 ppm1,000
City of WolfforthWolfforth, TX23 of 234.77 ppm3,600
Timber Ridge EstatesTroy, MO12 of 124.74 ppm40
Whispering Trees Mobile ParkBozeman, MT1 of 14.60 ppm100
Valley EstatesShallowater, TX7 of 74.59 ppm70
Shuler PointDallas, TX5 of 54.58 ppm33
Klondike Independent School DistrictLamesa, TX12 of 124.57 ppm264
Champion Farms SubdivisionTroy, MO10 of 104.54 ppm30
Lordsburg Water Supply SystemLordsburg, NM12 of 124.53 ppm2,797
114th Street Mobile Home ParkLubbock, TX12 of 124.52 ppm50
Willing Workers ClubCarrollton, VA4 of 44.52 ppm31
Pecan Grove Mobile Home ParkSan Antonio, TX12 of 124.46 ppm81
Town North EstatesLubbock, TX12 of 124.42 ppm210
Ocotillo Oasis Mobile Home ParkEncinitas, CA14 of 144.38 ppm100
Town of CourtlandCourtland, VA24 of 244.34 ppm1,284
Esperanza Water ServiceEl Paso, TX12 of 124.32 ppm708
Fay Ben Mobile Home ParkShallowater, TX11 of 114.30 ppm125
City of New HomeNew Home, TX12 of 124.27 ppm334
Whitharral Water Supply CorporationWhitharral, TX12 of 124.26 ppm200
City of PlainsPlains, TX12 of 124.21 ppm1,481
Plott AcresLubbock, TX24 of 244.20 ppm198
Laurel Ridge S/dLakemont, GA2 of 24.15 ppm31
Sonterra Municipal Utility DistrictAustin, TX8 of 84.14 ppm4,146

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Fluoride, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Bedford County UD*Shelbyville, TN1 of 15.34 ppm18,722
Jbsa - RandolphJbsa Lackland, TX6 of 63.93 ppm10,949
US Army Fort IrwinFort Irwin, CA130 of 1303.56 ppm16,000
Bucksport Water CompanyConway, SC12 of 123.41 ppm15,355
City of AndrewsAndrews, TX22 of 223.20 ppm11,088
Lewiston Orchards Irrigation DistrictLewiston, ID1 of 13.10 ppm20,000
City of HerefordHereford, TX7 of 72.91 ppm15,370
Gates County Water SystemGates, NC1 of 12.90 ppm11,621
Espanola Water System*Espanola, NM27 of 272.76 ppm10,495
Lincoln County PWSD 1*Winfield, MO52 of 522.71 ppm11,000
City of KyleKyle, TX3 of 32.64 ppm25,443
City of West RichlandWest Richland, WA5 of 52.51 ppm13,080
Canyon Municipal Water SystemCanyon, TX3 of 32.43 ppm13,650
Jonah Water SUD*Hutto, TX5 of 52.37 ppm19,611
Indianola Water Supply*Indianola, IA2 of 22.30 ppm14,782
Goforth SUDNiederwald, TX2 of 22.28 ppm20,790
U.S. Air Force Luke Air Force BaseGlendale, AZ1 of 12.26 ppm10,708
City of SaffordThatcher, AZ26 of 262.23 ppm18,900
Epcor Water New Mexico Inc ClovisClovis, NM16 of 162.09 ppm39,508
City of Moses LakeMoses Lake, WA37 of 372.08 ppm22,930
Portales Water System*Portales, NM2 of 22.05 ppm14,097
Easton UtilitiesEaston, MD11 of 142.00 ppm16,118
Troy*Troy, MO4 of 41.99 ppm10,500
Kaukauna UtilitiesKaukauna, WI2 of 21.95 ppm13,430
City of Buckeye Sonora - SundanceBuckeye, AZ2 of 21.91 ppm15,783
Fort Bend County MUD 23*Houston, TX2 of 21.89 ppm12,297
Hamilton Public Water System*Hamilton, OH1 of 11.80 ppm62,477
Global Water - Santa Cruz Water CompanyMaricopa, AZ37 of 381.76 ppm17,005
City of FountainFountain, CO2 of 21.75 ppm21,000
City of EulessEuless, TX2 of 21.74 ppm54,219
City of MidlandMidland, TX10 of 161.72 ppm132,950
Little Chute WaterworksLittle Chute, WI3 of 31.70 ppm11,040
DCWA KnightsvilleSummerville, SC6 of 61.69 ppm22,122
Lake Cities Municipal Utility AuthorityLake Dallas, TX1 of 11.65 ppm15,000
GCWSD Waccamaw NeckPawleys Island, SC9 of 91.62 ppm34,367
Robinson-palestine Water Commission*Robinson, IL1 of 11.61 ppm11,389
Stonegate MDParker, CO2 of 21.61 ppm10,413
Altoona Water SupplyAltoona, IA1 of 11.60 ppm14,541
City of Norco*Norco, CA248 of 2521.57 ppm27,160
Bertie County Regional WaterWindsor, NC14 of 141.52 ppm11,238
Harris County Municipal Utility District 24Bellaire, TX2 of 21.49 ppm10,263
Eastern Pines Water CorpGreenville, NC8 of 81.49 ppm19,543
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO5 of 51.48 ppm19,000
Atascosa Rural WSCAtascosa, TX3 of 31.48 ppm10,482
Darboy Sanitary District 1Appleton, WI2 of 21.45 ppm12,000
City of Dumas*Dumas, TX3 of 31.43 ppm14,985
Epcor Water - Sun City West*Youngtown, AZ2 of 21.43 ppm25,362
City of BedfordBedford, TX2 of 21.42 ppm46,979
Harris Montgomery Counties MUD 386Houston, TX3 of 31.39 ppm10,659
City of AnnaAnna, TX4 of 41.36 ppm11,500

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Fluoride, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.