EWG's Tap Water Database — 2021 UPDATE



Status: National drinking water standard exists


Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.




states detected


utilities detected

252 million

people served

Health concerns for fluoride

Harm to teeth

Harm to bones

Bone cancer

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

States reporting fluoride in drinking water

State UtilitiesPeople Served
North Carolina1,2038,606,374
New York8177,776,320
New Jersey2484,981,379
South Carolina3513,698,752
New Mexico4791,956,806
West Virginia3411,469,606
Rhode Island60934,634
District Of Columbia3648,882
North Dakota210516,748
New Hampshire406511,301
South Dakota81294,311

Filtering technologies that reduce fluoride

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of fluoride, 2017-2019

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Green Ridge Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association Inc.Tijeras, NM23 of 239.50 ppm154
American Realty Mortgage CompanyMaricopa, AZ20 of 208.41 ppm56
City of WellmanWellman, TX24 of 246.67 ppm225
Fort Jackson Mobile EstatesLubbock, TX12 of 126.41 ppm72
Garden Valley Ranchettes HomeownersGarden Valley, ID27 of 276.04 ppm78
Young-nak Presbyterian ChurchLos Angeles, CA2 of 25.97 ppm2,015
City of Opdyke WestLevelland, TX24 of 245.85 ppm273
Terrells Mobile Home ParkLovington, TX24 of 245.71 ppm60
San Simon Domestic Water Improvement DistrictSan Simon, AZ24 of 245.63 ppm312
Southwest Garden WaterLubbock, TX24 of 245.57 ppm375
Wolfforth PlaceWolfforth, TX24 of 245.51 ppm400
Birdsong WaterworksSuffolk, VA26 of 265.50 ppm71
Seven EstatesWolfforth, TX10 of 105.50 ppm261
Borden County Water SystemGail, TX24 of 245.22 ppm300
Springfield DownsSmithfield, VA26 of 265.04 ppm120
City of RopesvilleRopesville, TX24 of 245.03 ppm428
Grassland Water Supply CorporationTahoka, TX24 of 245.03 ppm55
Glen Acres Water Co-opLordsburg, NM19 of 194.85 ppm180
Milford, Village ofLansing, MI7 of 74.84 ppm6,366
City of SeagravesSeagraves, TX37 of 374.80 ppm2,417
Rescue WaterworksRescue, VA26 of 264.72 ppm203
114th Street Mobile Home ParkLubbock, TX24 of 244.66 ppm125
Valley EstatesShallowater, TX11 of 114.64 ppm70
City of WolfforthWolfforth, TX47 of 474.62 ppm3,600
L.a. Residential Community FoundationSaugus, CA1 of 14.60 ppm154
Pecan Grove Mobile Home ParkSan Antonio, TX24 of 244.60 ppm81
Lordsburg Water Supply System*Lordsburg, NM24 of 244.43 ppm3,028
Willing Workers ClubCarrollton, VA14 of 144.39 ppm31
Red Rader Rv ParkBenbrook, TX23 of 234.36 ppm46
Laurel Ridge S/dLakemont, GA4 of 44.30 ppm31
North Trails Mutual Water CompanyAgua Dulce, CA16 of 164.29 ppm200
City of New HomeNew Home, TX24 of 244.28 ppm345
Cox Addition Water SystemLubbock, TX24 of 244.26 ppm114
Town North EstatesLubbock, TX24 of 244.19 ppm216
Town of CourtlandCourtland, VA41 of 414.18 ppm1,284
Champion Farms SubdivisionTroy, MO50 of 504.14 ppm30
Plott AcresLubbock, TX48 of 484.13 ppm204
Whitharral Water Supply CorporationWhitharral, TX24 of 244.04 ppm200
Sonterra Municipal Utility DistrictAustin, TX13 of 134.04 ppm6,846
City of PlainsPlains, TX24 of 244.03 ppm1,481
Linger Lodge Trailer Trailer ParkBradenton, FL4 of 43.97 ppm250
Shuler PointDallas, TX13 of 133.96 ppm33
Upper Holman Mutual Domestic Water Consumers AssociationHolman, NM22 of 223.96 ppm325
Sunray Water Company Inc.Chesapeake, VA2 of 23.96 ppm60
Umbarger Community Water SupplyUmbarger, TX23 of 233.94 ppm180
Plantation Mobile Home ParkChesapeake, VA15 of 153.93 ppm150
Deer RunSmithfield, VA31 of 313.92 ppm104
Country View Mobile Home ParkShallowater, TX8 of 83.92 ppm55
Beachview Acres Water AssociationMurchison, TX2 of 23.91 ppm56
Days PointIsle Of Wight, VA2 of 23.91 ppm225

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Fluoride, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
US Army Fort IrwinFort Irwin, CA350 of 3503.67 ppm16,000
Daleville Water & Sewer BoardDaleville, AL5 of 53.57 ppm10,014
City of AndrewsAndrews, TX38 of 383.47 ppm11,088
Bucksport Water CompanyConway, SC27 of 273.21 ppm15,297
City of HerefordHereford, TX13 of 132.85 ppm15,370
Gates County Water SystemGatesville, NC2 of 22.80 ppm11,621
Espanola Water System*Espanola, NM32 of 322.78 ppm12,012
Lincoln County PWSD 1*Winfield, MO88 of 882.72 ppm11,000
Allouez WaterworksGreen Bay, WI2 of 22.50 ppm13,932
Jonah Water SUDHutto, TX11 of 112.47 ppm26,865
City of KyleKyle, TX7 of 72.45 ppm29,118
Canyon Municipal Water SystemCanyon, TX7 of 72.40 ppm14,500
City of West RichlandWest Richland, WA9 of 92.37 ppm15,320
Indianola Water Supply*Indianola, IA3 of 32.30 ppm14,782
Jbsa - RandolphJbsa Lackland, TX16 of 162.29 ppm10,949
Portales Water System*Portales, NM4 of 42.15 ppm14,067
Epcor Water New Mexico Inc ClovisClovis, NM27 of 272.08 ppm42,976
Lewiston Orchards Irrigation DistrictLewiston, ID4 of 42.04 ppm20,000
City of MidlandMidland, TX17 of 232.02 ppm132,950
Troy*Troy, MO9 of 92.02 ppm10,500
City of EulessEuless, TX5 of 51.98 ppm56,160
City of Moses LakeMoses Lake, WA67 of 671.93 ppm22,930
Goforth SUDNiederwald, TX5 of 51.93 ppm27,639
Kaukauna UtilitiesKaukauna, WI5 of 51.90 ppm13,430
City of SaffordSafford, AZ49 of 491.84 ppm18,900
Ashwaubenon Waterworks*Green Bay, WI3 of 31.80 ppm17,730
Lake Cities Municipal Utility AuthorityLake Dallas, TX3 of 31.79 ppm16,533
Fort Bend County MUD 23*Houston, TX5 of 51.77 ppm12,297
City of FountainFountain, CO7 of 71.77 ppm29,000
GuymonGuymon, OK7 of 71.74 ppm11,442
DCWA KnightsvilleSummerville, SC11 of 111.73 ppm23,513
City of Norco*Norco, CA435 of 4401.69 ppm27,160
City of Buckeye Sonora - SundanceBuckeye, AZ4 of 41.69 ppm15,783
Little Chute WaterworksLittle Chute, WI6 of 61.67 ppm11,040
Atascosa Rural WSCAtascosa, TX5 of 51.65 ppm11,007
Easton UtilitiesEaston, MD20 of 231.63 ppm16,118
Stonegate MDParker, CO2 of 21.61 ppm15,071
Altoona Water SupplyAltoona, IA1 of 11.60 ppm14,541
City of Pecos*Pecos, TX2 of 21.60 ppm12,480
Bertie County Regional WaterWindsor, NC28 of 281.59 ppm12,893
Arizona Water Company - White TanksPhoenix, AZ4 of 41.55 ppm10,186
U.S. Air Force Luke Air Force BaseLuke Afb, AZ3 of 31.53 ppm10,708
City of GrandviewGrandview, WA18 of 181.52 ppm11,010
City of BedfordBedford, TX4 of 41.48 ppm49,526
Global Water - Santa Cruz Water CompanyMaricopa, AZ90 of 911.48 ppm17,005
Marco Rural Water Company*Marion, SC23 of 231.46 ppm15,082
Darboy Sanitary District 1Appleton, WI4 of 41.45 ppm12,000
Eastern Pines Water CorpGreenville, NC17 of 171.43 ppm22,230
Harris Montgomery Counties MUD 386Houston, TX6 of 61.40 ppm10,659
City of California CityCalifornia City, CA12 of 121.38 ppm14,212

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Fluoride, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.