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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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2,4-D

Tennessee American Water

2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a herbicide that can be applied directly to GMO corn and soy plants engineered to withstand this toxic chemical. Americans' exposures to 2,4-D from food and drinking water will likely increase in years to come as farmers plant more of these GMO crops. Read More.

2,4-D is an endocrine disruptor that interferes with thyroid hormones. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies 2,4-D as possibly carcinogenic to humans. In occupational studies, farmers exposed to 2,4-D tended to have higher incidences of damaged and malformed sperm. Laboratory animals exposed to 2,4-D during gestation are born underdeveloped and are more likely to have birth defects.

 

20

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND10ND
20130.0429 ppb71ND - 0.300 ppb
2014ND70ND
2015ND10ND
2016ND20ND
20170.150 ppb21ND - 0.300 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 20 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 20 ppb for 2,4-D was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against harm to internal organs.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 70 ppb

The legal limit for 2,4-D, established in 1991, was based on toxicity studies in laboratory animals conducted in the 1980s. This limit may not fully protect against harm to the nervous system, harm to the thyroid, and hormone disruption.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Result
2012-05-14ND
2013-04-050.300 ppb
2013-05-02ND
2013-06-05ND
2013-07-02ND
2013-08-20ND
2013-09-09ND
2013-12-04ND
2014-01-07ND
2014-02-04ND
2014-03-04ND
2014-04-02ND
2014-05-06ND
2014-06-03ND
2014-06-10ND
2015-04-17ND
2016-06-15ND
2016-09-19ND
2017-04-040.300 ppb
2017-10-24ND