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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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2,4-D

Status: National drinking water standard exists

 

2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a herbicide that can be applied directly to GMO corn and soy plants engineered to withstand this toxic chemical. Americans' exposures to 2,4-D from food and drinking water will likely increase in years to come as farmers plant more of these GMO crops. Read More.

2,4-D is an endocrine disruptor that interferes with thyroid hormones. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies 2,4-D as possibly carcinogenic to humans. In occupational studies, farmers exposed to 2,4-D tended to have higher incidences of damaged and malformed sperm. Laboratory animals exposed to 2,4-D during gestation are born underdeveloped and are more likely to have birth defects.

2015-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

27

states detected

248

utilities detected

14 million

people served

0

states over health guideline

0

utilities over health guideline

0

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for 2,4-D

Hormone disruption

Harm to the liver

Harm to the kidney

Harm to the thyroid

Harm to the brain and nervous system

Change to immune system function

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 20 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 20 ppb for 2,4-D was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against harm to internal organs.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 70 ppb

The legal limit for 2,4-D, established in 1991, was based on toxicity studies in laboratory animals conducted in the 1980s. This limit may not fully protect against harm to the nervous system, harm to the thyroid, and hormone disruption.

ppb = parts per billion

States reporting 2,4-D in drinking water

UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served
Pennsylvania102,476,007
Nevada51,677,806
Colorado401,618,389
Arizona41,585,011
Indiana181,378,354
Missouri131,267,951
Tennessee131,093,128
Florida25817,000
Kentucky15507,398
Minnesota6500,849
Oregon4204,794
Texas18155,499
Louisiana11154,637
New York20122,449
Connecticut281,087
Illinois2567,260
Georgia258,903
South Carolina357,361
Delaware237,188
Alabama231,112
North Carolina26,678
West Virginia22,175
North Dakota21,976
Idaho194
Nebraska185
Washington185
Wyoming180
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce 2,4-D

carbon filter icon

Activated Carbon

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of 2,4-D, 2015-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Elk Creek, Village ofElk Creek, NE1 of 13.13 ppb85
Live Oak WTPLive Oak, FL1 of 41.94 ppb12,340
Frostproof, City ofFrostproof, FL2 of 60.500 ppb3,550
Hoyleton-new Minden*Hoyleton, IL1 of 60.483 ppb48
Nashville*Nashville, IL1 of 60.483 ppb3,320
Breezy Hill WDGraniteville, SC3 of 210.453 ppb13,692
CoultervilleCoulterville, IL1 of 60.450 ppb1,300
North Castle Water District #4*Armonk, NY1 of 70.431 ppb2,525
North Castle Water District #7Armonk, NY1 of 70.431 ppb100
North Castle Water District #5Armonk, NY1 of 70.431 ppb225
Taylor Coastal Water & Sewer DistrictPerry, FL1 of 60.332 ppb1,231
Beardsley Water Company 1Phoenix, AZ2 of 20.320 ppb461
Peak View RanchApache Junction, AZ1 of 10.320 ppb232
Hyde Park / D.c.w.w.a. Plant*Poughkeepsie, NY1 of 10.280 ppb9,636
Harbourd Hills / Zone DPoughkeepsie, NY1 of 10.280 ppb1,544
Turtle Rock VillageDundee, NY1 of 10.280 ppb48
Staatsburg Water SystemPoughkeepsie, NY1 of 10.280 ppb1,164
Water Unlimited, Incorporated*Newcastle, WY1 of 40.275 ppb80
Carpendale, Town OfRidgeley, WV1 of 10.271 ppb908
Lafourche Water District 1Lockport, LA6 of 240.264 ppb78,760
Holbrook, City ofHolbrook, AZ1 of 80.263 ppb5,318
Niota Water SystemNiota, TN1 of 20.250 ppb3,295
Hiwassee Utility Commission*Charleston, TN1 of 20.250 ppb98
City of George WestGeorge West, TX1 of 20.250 ppb2,400
Calhoun-charleston Utility DisCalhoun, TN1 of 20.250 ppb2,713
Toledo Village Water Supply CorporationJasper, TX2 of 50.240 ppb1,610
Guilford Water DistrictGuilford, NY1 of 20.215 ppb350
Arden HillsArden Hills, MN2 of 30.200 ppb9,652
Little CanadaLittle Canada, MN2 of 30.200 ppb9,773
Kaskaskia Water District*New Athens, IL1 of 70.200 ppb1
Mountain LakeMountain Lake, MN1 of 10.200 ppb2,100
TildenTilden, IL1 of 70.200 ppb1,200
Saint Paul Regional Water Services*St. Paul, MN2 of 30.200 ppb422,660
New AthensNew Athens, IL1 of 70.200 ppb2,200
MarissaMarissa, IL1 of 70.200 ppb2,200
RosevilleRoseville, MN2 of 30.200 ppb33,690
Sparta*Sparta, IL1 of 50.200 ppb4,853
LenzburgLenzburg, IL1 of 70.200 ppb615
Glens Falls CityGlens Falls, NY1 of 20.190 ppb14,000
Salem*Salem, IL1 of 80.188 ppb9,000
Pinewood Springs Water DistrictLyons, CO1 of 80.188 ppb950
Cleveland Utilities*Cleveland, TN1 of 30.167 ppb81,325
Okaloosa County - Mid System (crestview)*Ft. Walton Beach, FL1 of 30.160 ppb9,608
Cullman Utilities Board*Cullman, AL1 of 20.150 ppb32
City of Cullman Water Works*Cullman, AL1 of 20.150 ppb31,080
East Lawrence Water AuthorityBedford, IN1 of 20.150 ppb8,000
Bedford City Utilities*Bedford, IN1 of 20.150 ppb14,000
Montgomery County Municipal Utility District 9*Houston, TX1 of 20.150 ppb6,204
Jonesboro Water SystemJonesboro, LA2 of 120.150 ppb6,876
CentralWinter Haven, FL1 of 100.150 ppb13,595

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 2,4-D, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Live Oak WTPLive Oak, FL1 of 41.94 ppb12,340
Breezy Hill WDGraniteville, SC3 of 210.453 ppb13,692
Lafourche Water District 1Lockport, LA6 of 240.264 ppb78,760
RosevilleRoseville, MN2 of 30.200 ppb33,690
Saint Paul Regional Water Services*St. Paul, MN2 of 30.200 ppb422,660
Glens Falls CityGlens Falls, NY1 of 20.190 ppb14,000
Cleveland Utilities*Cleveland, TN1 of 30.167 ppb81,325
City of Cullman Water Works*Cullman, AL1 of 20.150 ppb31,080
CentralWinter Haven, FL1 of 100.150 ppb13,595
Bedford City Utilities*Bedford, IN1 of 20.150 ppb14,000
City of Port St. JoePort St. Joe, FL2 of 40.120 ppb12,806
Indiana American Water - MuncieGreenwood, IN2 of 20.1000 ppb65,708
Aqua Pennsylvania Main System*Bryn Mawr, PA1 of 150.1000 ppb747,460
Portland Water SystemPortland, TN1 of 30.1000 ppb20,845
Philadelphia Water Department*Philadelphia, PA2 of 140.0929 ppb1,600,000
Elk RiverElk River, MN1 of 30.0833 ppb22,974
NeoshoNeosho, MO1 of 30.0833 ppb12,157
Thibodaux WaterworksThibodaux, LA2 of 120.0750 ppb15,810
Kentucky-American Water Company*Lexington, KY2 of 80.0750 ppb356,400
Evansville Water Utility*Evansville, IN4 of 120.0667 ppb173,000
German Township Water District Inc.*Evansville, IN4 of 120.0667 ppb12,058
Fort Wayne - 3 Rivers Filtration Plant*Fort Wayne, IN3 of 130.0615 ppb250,000
New Haven Water DepartmentNew Haven, IN3 of 130.0615 ppb15,700
Citizens Water - Indianapolis*Indianapolis, IN8 of 390.0615 ppb814,338
Winchester Water SystemWinchester, TN1 of 50.0600 ppb21,176
Tennessee American Water*Chattanooga, TN1 of 50.0600 ppb186,625
Lee County Utilities*Fort Myers, FL4 of 110.0566 ppb236,944
Hardin County Water District #2Elizabethtown, KY1 of 50.0400 ppb76,326
Mt Werner WD*Steamboat Springs, CO1 of 40.0350 ppb16,980
Nashville Water Department #1*Nashville, TN1 of 20.0335 ppb702,407
Peekskill City*Peekskill, NY1 of 30.0290 ppb52,969
Toho Water Authority - Poinciana SystemKissimmee, FL1 of 30.0270 ppb69,447
City of EvansEvans, CO1 of 100.0220 ppb19,369
City of Greeley*Greeley, CO1 of 100.0220 ppb91,109
Houma Water Treatment Service AreaHouma, LA2 of 120.0217 ppb31,560
Salem Public Works*Salem, OR2 of 130.0177 ppb189,000
Suburban East Salem WDSalem, OR2 of 130.0177 ppb13,450
Missouri American Jefferson City DistrictJefferson City, MO1 of 60.0167 ppb27,117
City of Pasadena*Pasadena, TX1 of 120.0167 ppb110,058
Jefferson County Cons. PWSD C 1*Barnhart, MO2 of 350.0143 ppb35,000
Jefferson County PWSD 3*Arnold, MO2 of 350.0143 ppb17,000
Jefferson County PWSD 10Imperial, MO2 of 350.0143 ppb10,000
Jefferson County PWSD1*Arnold, MO2 of 350.0143 ppb20,000
Missouri American St. Louis County & St. Charles County*Chesterfield, MO2 of 350.0143 ppb1,100,000
KirkwoodKirkwood, MO2 of 350.0143 ppb28,000
City of Cape Coral*Cape Coral, FL1 of 60.0135 ppb132,737
Murphysboro*Murphysboro, IL1 of 80.0125 ppb11,915
Consolidated Mutual No2Lakewood, CO1 of 120.00833 ppb58,638
Green Mountain WSDLakewood, CO1 of 120.00833 ppb25,000
Lakehurst WSDLittleton, CO1 of 120.00833 ppb13,300

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 2,4-D, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.