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2,4-D

Status: National drinking water standard exists

 

2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a herbicide that can be applied directly to GMO corn and soy plants engineered to withstand this toxic chemical. Americans' exposures to 2,4-D from food and drinking water will likely increase in years to come as farmers plant more of these GMO crops. Read More.

2,4-D is an endocrine disruptor that interferes with thyroid hormones. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies 2,4-D as possibly carcinogenic to humans. In occupational studies, farmers exposed to 2,4-D tended to have higher incidences of damaged and malformed sperm. Laboratory animals exposed to 2,4-D during gestation are born underdeveloped and are more likely to have birth defects.

2015:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

14

states detected

92

utilities detected

4.4 million

people served

0

states over health guideline

0

utilities over health guideline

0

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for 2,4-D

Hormone disruption

Harm to the liver

Harm to the kidney

Harm to the thyroid

Harm to the brain and nervous system

Change to immune system function

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

Health Guideline 20 ppb

The health guideline of 20 ppb for 2,4-D was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against harm to internal organs.

ppb = parts per billion.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 70 ppb

The enforceable federal standard that defines the highest level of a contaminant allowed in drinking water.

ppb = parts per billion.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level Goal (MCLG)70.0 ppb

A non-enforceable federal health guideline. For cancer-causing chemicals, these health goals are typically set to zero.

ppb = parts per billion.

States reporting 2,4-D in drinking water

UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served
Indiana161,352,694
Missouri91,262,117
Tennessee6756,575
Nevada2328,932
Colorado6212,603
Florida6140,554
Kentucky4121,963
Louisiana795,650
New York383,538
Illinois1741,207
Texas1337,452
North Carolina1168
Pennsylvania1150
Idaho194
MORE
LESS

Utilities with the highest amounts of 2,4-D, 2015

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Kaskaskia Water District*New Athens, IL1 of 20.700 ppb1
Taylor Coastal Water & Sewer DistrictPerry, FL1 of 40.498 ppb1,231
Okaloosa County - Mid System (crestview)*Ft. Walton Beach, FL1 of 10.480 ppb9,608
Elder Springs Mobile Home ParkSanford, FL1 of 10.472 ppb62
Montgomery County Municipal Utility District 9*Montgomery, TX1 of 10.300 ppb6,204
Toledo Village Water Supply CorporationJasper, TX1 of 20.300 ppb1,531
Northwest Freeway Municipal Utility DistrictHouston, TX1 of 20.250 ppb3,558
Hardin County Water District #2*Elizabethtown, KY1 of 10.200 ppb76,326
City of MarlinMarlin, TX1 of 10.200 ppb5,967
Clear Creek Forest Section 12Austin, TX1 of 20.200 ppb1,611
Lafourche Water District 1Lockport, LA2 of 80.183 ppb78,760
Jonesboro Water SystemJonesboro, LA2 of 100.180 ppb6,876
Carlin Bay Property Owners AssociationHarrison, ID1 of 20.139 ppb94
Tiffany PinesMontrose, PA1 of 40.108 ppb150
Coolcrest Water SystemPflugerville, TX1 of 20.1000 ppb909
Cedar Oak Mesa Water Supply CorporationWimberley, TX1 of 10.1000 ppb609
Indiana American Water - MuncieGreenwood, IN2 of 20.1000 ppb67,205
Peekskill City*Peekskill, NY1 of 10.0870 ppb52,969
Durham Park Water Supply CorporationLiberty Hill, TX2 of 50.0800 ppb1,075
Tensas Water District Association*St Joseph, LA2 of 40.0750 ppb3,822
Bayview Municipal Utility District*Bacliff, TX1 of 30.0667 ppb1,830
Linden Water DepartmentLinden, TN1 of 30.0667 ppb6,610
Fort Wayne - 3 Rivers Filtration Plant*Fort Wayne, IN1 of 50.0600 ppb250,000
City of Greeley*Greeley, CO1 of 40.0550 ppb91,109
Spring Valley Mobile Home S/dConcord, NC1 of 40.0525 ppb168
Green Rich Shores and Sterling Island SuNew Waverly, TX1 of 20.0500 ppb275
Evansville Water Utility*Evansville, IN1 of 40.0500 ppb162,000
Seneca Water Supply CorporationWoodville, TX1 of 20.0500 ppb773
Newellton Water SystemNewellton, LA2 of 40.0495 ppb1,596
Oil City Water WorksOil City, LA2 of 40.0425 ppb2,115

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 2,4-D, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

MORE
LESS
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Hardin County Water District #2*Elizabethtown, KY1 of 10.200 ppb76,326
Lafourche Water District 1Lockport, LA2 of 80.183 ppb78,760
Indiana American Water - MuncieGreenwood, IN2 of 20.1000 ppb67,205
Peekskill City*Peekskill, NY1 of 10.0870 ppb52,969
Fort Wayne - 3 Rivers Filtration Plant*Fort Wayne, IN1 of 50.0600 ppb250,000
City of Greeley*Greeley, CO1 of 40.0550 ppb91,109
Evansville Water Utility*Evansville, IN1 of 40.0500 ppb162,000
Nashville Water Department #1*Nashville, TN1 of 20.0335 ppb637,216
Citizens Water - Indianapolis*Indianapolis, IN1 of 220.0273 ppb809,778
Missouri American Jefferson City District*Jefferson City, MO1 of 40.0250 ppb27,117
Missouri American St. Louis County & St. Charles County*Chesterfield, MO2 of 200.0250 ppb1,100,000
Truckee Meadows Water Authority*Reno, NV2 of 190.0147 ppb311,932

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 2,4-D, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.