EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE


Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)

Jackson Township Water Authority

Trihalomethanes are cancer-causing contaminants that form during water treatment with chlorine and other disinfectants. The total trihalomethanes group includes four chemicals: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform. Read More.

Studies conducted in the U.S. and Europe have found that drinking tap water that carries disinfection byproducts increases the risk of developing bladder cancer. In animal studies, all trihalomethanes cause liver, kidney and intestinal tumors. Some human epidemiological studies also reported an association between disinfection byproducts and an increased risk of problems during pregnancy, including spontaneous miscarriage, cardiovascular defects, neural tube defects and low birth weight.

In 2010, the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment published a draft public health goal for the trihalomethanes group at 0.8 parts per billion, or 100 times lower than the federal legal limit of 80 parts per billion for this contaminant group.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
201273.0 ppb7729.8 ppb - 113.9 ppb
201372.0 ppb8837.5 ppb - 121.0 ppb
201473.7 ppb9928.8 ppb - 138.0 ppb
201573.9 ppb8821.7 ppb - 122.0 ppb
201681.6 ppb8843.5 ppb - 152.0 ppb
201775.8 ppb8844.0 ppb - 112.0 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.15 ppb

The health guideline of 0.15 parts per billion, or ppb, for the group of four trihalomethanes, or THM4/TTHM, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a one-in-one-million lifetime cancer risk level.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 80 ppb

The legal limit for the group of four trihalomethanes, established in 1998, was based on the need for residual disinfectant levels in water served to customers and the cost of treatment. This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to exposure to trihalomethanes.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-0712 0578829.8 ppb
2012-02-0712 0578741.4 ppb
2012-05-0112 2034460.3 ppb
2012-08-0712 38101113.9 ppb
2012-08-1412 4020390.7 ppb
2012-11-062110396-0573.7 ppb
2012-11-062110396-04101.0 ppb
2013-02-053020219-0437.5 ppb
2013-02-053020219-0554.7 ppb
2013-05-143051124-0253.1 ppb
2013-05-143051124-0360.6 ppb
2013-08-063080405-0589.9 ppb
2013-08-063080405-04121.0 ppb
2013-11-053110268-0156.9 ppb
2013-11-053110268-02102.0 ppb
2014-02-064020502-0147.1 ppb
2014-02-064020502-0228.8 ppb
2014-05-064050518-0140.0 ppb
2014-05-064050518-0262.0 ppb
2014-08-054080329-0176.2 ppb
2014-08-054080329-02138.0 ppb
2014-08-194082011-01102.0 ppb
2014-11-044110186-0294.0 ppb
2014-11-044110186-0174.8 ppb
2015-02-031244545721.7 ppb
2015-02-161244546243.2 ppb
2015-05-051280076090.4 ppb
2015-05-051280076558.0 ppb
2015-08-0413183232122.0 ppb
2015-08-041318323792.9 ppb
2015-11-031355958165.0 ppb
2015-11-031355958098.0 ppb
2016-02-021391537743.5 ppb
2016-02-021391537174.3 ppb
2016-05-031431070467.5 ppb
2016-05-031431069956.8 ppb
2016-08-0214801694152.0 ppb
2016-08-021480169587.3 ppb
2016-11-011528077088.1 ppb
2016-11-011528076983.1 ppb
2017-02-071570750944.0 ppb
2017-02-071570750470.0 ppb
2017-05-021615700057.0 ppb
2017-05-021615699569.0 ppb
2017-08-0116627234112.0 ppb
2017-08-011662724386.0 ppb
2017-11-071707538586.0 ppb
2017-11-071707538082.0 ppb