EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE



City of Lexington

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20140.458 ppm11110.325 ppm - 0.707 ppm
20160.356 ppm110.356 ppm
20170.504 ppm330.285 ppm - 0.623 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2014-02-102816870.325 ppm
2014-02-102816920.650 ppm
2014-02-102816910.351 ppm
2014-02-102816900.506 ppm
2014-02-102816890.707 ppm
2014-02-102816880.472 ppm
2014-02-102816860.385 ppm
2014-02-102816850.377 ppm
2014-02-102816840.340 ppm
2014-04-072941520.588 ppm
2014-04-072941510.334 ppm
2016-10-250.356 ppm
2017-04-030.285 ppm
2017-04-030.604 ppm
2017-04-030.623 ppm