EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE



Kansas City Board of Public Utilities

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.750 ppm440.680 ppm - 0.830 ppm
20130.788 ppm440.740 ppm - 0.870 ppm
20140.700 ppm440.660 ppm - 0.740 ppm
20150.625 ppm440.430 ppm - 0.750 ppm
20160.755 ppm440.710 ppm - 0.820 ppm
20170.823 ppm330.780 ppm - 0.890 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-11JAN2012-FLU0.680 ppm
2012-05-232012-05-23-IOC0.750 ppm
2012-07-30JUL2012-FLU0.740 ppm
2012-10-17OCT2012-FLU0.830 ppm
2013-01-28JAN2013-FLU0.740 ppm
2013-05-15MAY-13-IOC0.770 ppm
2013-07-29JUL2013-FLU0.870 ppm
2013-11-20NOV2013-FLU0.770 ppm
2014-01-22JAN2014-FLU0.730 ppm
2014-05-13MAY-14-IOC0.670 ppm
2014-08-13AUG2014-FLU0.660 ppm
2014-11-11NOV2014-FLU0.740 ppm
2015-02-03FEB2015-FLU0.570 ppm
2015-05-13MAY-15-IOC0.750 ppm
2015-07-27JUL2015-FLU0.430 ppm
2015-10-14OCT2015-FLU0.750 ppm
2016-02-08FEB2016-FLU0.710 ppm
2016-05-17MAY-16-IOC0.760 ppm
2016-08-22AUG2016-FLU0.820 ppm
2016-11-15NOV2016-FLU0.730 ppm
2017-01-11JAN2017-FLU0.780 ppm
2017-08-07AUG2017-FLU0.890 ppm
2017-11-09NOV2017-FLU0.800 ppm