EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE



University of Kansas

NOTE: University of Kansas purchases water from City of Lawrence which is required to test for fluoride. Sample information shown below was taken by City of Lawrence.

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.514 ppm16160.250 ppm - 0.700 ppm
20130.441 ppm18180.190 ppm - 0.700 ppm
20140.384 ppm16160.190 ppm - 0.500 ppm
20150.339 ppm10100.220 ppm - 0.550 ppm
20160.313 ppm108ND - 0.630 ppm
20170.303 ppm98ND - 0.430 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

NOTE: University of Kansas purchases water from City of Lawrence which is required to test for fluoride. Sample information shown below was taken by City of Lawrence.

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-15575571BT0.610 ppm
2012-02-15FEB2012-GENCHEM0.600 ppm
2012-02-15FEB-12-GENCHEM0.700 ppm
2012-02-16575570BT0.620 ppm
2012-05-02578348WS0.540 ppm
2012-05-02578344BT0.430 ppm
2012-05-02578349WS0.460 ppm
2012-05-02578343BT0.540 ppm
2012-05-16MAY2012-GENCHEM0.500 ppm
2012-05-16MAY-12-GENCHEM0.700 ppm
2012-08-22584419BT0.530 ppm
2012-08-22584421BT0.490 ppm
2012-11-14NOV2012-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2012-11-14NOV-12-GENCHEM0.600 ppm
2012-11-27588206BT0.250 ppm
2012-11-27588207BT0.260 ppm
2013-02-13592462BT0.680 ppm
2013-02-13FEB-13-GENCHEM0.500 ppm
2013-02-13592461BT0.510 ppm
2013-02-13FEB2013-GENCHEM0.700 ppm
2013-05-08595844WS0.380 ppm
2013-05-08595845WS0.500 ppm
2013-05-13MAY2013-GENCHEM0.500 ppm
2013-05-13MAY-13-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2013-05-13595977BT0.480 ppm
2013-05-13595976BT0.370 ppm
2013-08-12601136BT0.190 ppm
2013-08-12601137BT0.370 ppm
2013-08-14AUG2013-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2013-08-14AUG-13-GENCHEM0.200 ppm
2013-11-13605592BT0.490 ppm
2013-11-13NOV-13-GENCHEM0.500 ppm
2013-11-13NOV2013-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2013-11-13605591BT0.370 ppm
2014-02-12FEB2014-GENCHEM0.500 ppm
2014-02-12606560.420 ppm
2014-02-12606590.310 ppm
2014-02-12FEB-14-GENCHEM0.300 ppm
2014-04-17982280.430 ppm
2014-04-17982310.380 ppm
2014-04-17982290.400 ppm
2014-04-17982300.450 ppm
2014-05-21MAY-14-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2014-05-21MAY2014-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2014-08-13AUG-14-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2014-08-13AUG2014-GENCHEM0.400 ppm
2014-08-201784330.360 ppm
2014-08-201784340.450 ppm
2014-10-232184350.350 ppm
2014-10-232184340.190 ppm
2015-01-122604830.430 ppm
2015-01-122604840.550 ppm
2015-04-013039110.240 ppm
2015-04-013039120.240 ppm
2015-04-213165100.430 ppm
2015-04-213164630.420 ppm
2015-08-103817950.220 ppm
2015-08-103817960.340 ppm
2015-11-034214240.290 ppm
2015-11-034214250.230 ppm
2016-02-164939320.630 ppm
2016-02-164939330.310 ppm
2016-05-045385210.410 ppm
2016-05-045385220.410 ppm
2016-05-045385200.380 ppm
2016-05-045385190.380 ppm
2016-07-215874750.430 ppm
2016-07-215874740.180 ppm
2017-01-116797680.360 ppm
2017-04-047339180.360 ppm
2017-04-047339170.280 ppm
2017-04-257469830.320 ppm
2017-04-257469850.290 ppm
2017-07-057888860.320 ppm
2017-07-057888870.370 ppm
2017-11-158789060.430 ppm