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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Fluoride

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Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

56

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND20ND
2013ND70ND
2014ND110ND
2015ND120ND
2016ND120ND
2017ND120ND

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-22S387872ND
2012-03-12S386601ND
2013-01-28S474349ND
2013-07-24S514648ND
2013-08-21S514697ND
2013-09-06S514580ND
2013-10-25S523277ND
2013-11-19S536105ND
2013-12-27S542806ND
2014-01-24S156772ND
2014-02-20S548573ND
2014-03-20S542627ND
2014-04-28S570426ND
2014-05-27S575546ND
2014-06-26S575524ND
2014-07-18S579583ND
2014-08-27S576528ND
2014-09-10S576647ND
2014-10-28S601734ND
2014-12-11S567265ND
2015-01-29S616034ND
2015-02-25S616850ND
2015-03-31S616252ND
2015-04-23S619939ND
2015-05-26S616300ND
2015-06-22S621181ND
2015-07-29S629513ND
2015-08-24S579395ND
2015-09-28S641439ND
2015-10-27S656174ND
2015-11-30S656106ND
2015-12-11S660661ND
2016-01-28S676268ND
2016-02-02S659489ND
2016-03-23S660698ND
2016-04-22S629502ND
2016-05-26S669950ND
2016-06-30S670117ND
2016-07-28S671157ND
2016-08-26S671263ND
2016-09-28S660817ND
2016-10-31S660993ND
2016-11-07S703574ND
2016-12-28S714315ND
2017-01-13S703738ND
2017-02-08S732316ND
2017-03-01S725029ND
2017-04-27S750172ND
2017-05-18S751209ND
2017-06-08S737939ND
2017-07-06S740485ND
2017-08-16S751938ND
2017-09-29S752009ND
2017-10-12S760275ND
2017-11-15S779445ND
2017-12-21S782069ND