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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Fluoride

Sacramento Suburban Water District

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

326

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.0890 ppm5031ND - 0.220 ppm
20130.0925 ppm8847ND - 0.360 ppm
20140.0292 ppm4810ND - 0.320 ppm
20150.0259 ppm296ND - 0.150 ppm
20160.0992 ppm7344ND - 0.280 ppm
20170.0500 ppm3815ND - 0.150 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-115810-240-13300.220 ppm
2012-04-115810-240-13300.180 ppm
2012-06-255810-067-13400.1000 ppm
2012-07-025810-240-13100.220 ppm
2012-07-095810-001-11250.130 ppm
2012-07-095810-002-11350.130 ppm
2012-07-095810-004-10350.120 ppm
2012-07-095810-010-11150.130 ppm
2012-07-095810-011-11000.140 ppm
2012-07-095810-012-10500.140 ppm
2012-07-095810-032-10250.140 ppm
2012-07-095810-034-1250ND
2012-07-095810-054-1155ND
2012-07-095810-055-12450.110 ppm
2012-07-095810-056-1300ND
2012-07-095810-062-10300.110 ppm
2012-07-095810-069-1320ND
2012-07-095810-070-1310ND
2012-07-095810-072-09150.130 ppm
2012-07-195810-061-1240ND
2012-07-195810-064-1255ND
2012-07-195810-065-1215ND
2012-07-195810-066-1350ND
2012-07-255810-007-1220ND
2012-07-255810-013-1030ND
2012-07-255810-015-10150.1000 ppm
2012-07-255810-018-09500.170 ppm
2012-07-255810-019-1110ND
2012-07-255810-020-09150.160 ppm
2012-07-255810-025-1125ND
2012-07-255810-038-1150ND
2012-07-255810-042-09450.180 ppm
2012-07-255810-051-10000.150 ppm
2012-07-255810-052-09300.160 ppm
2012-07-255810-071-0900ND
2012-07-255810-074-1055ND
2012-08-135810-005-11400.140 ppm
2012-08-135810-021-11500.120 ppm
2012-08-135810-022-1050ND
2012-08-135810-027-13300.140 ppm
2012-08-135810-028-11200.170 ppm
2012-08-135810-030-13100.1000 ppm
2012-08-135810-033-12150.120 ppm
2012-08-305810-017-11450.110 ppm
2012-08-305810-067-1330ND
2012-09-065810-073-07250.130 ppm
2012-09-195810-035-1040ND
2012-10-035810-029-10350.140 ppm
2012-10-035810-240-09500.190 ppm
2012-11-285810-246-10550.170 ppm
2013-01-105810-240-11400.220 ppm
2013-04-185810-016-14000.110 ppm
2013-05-165810-246-1015ND
2013-07-015810-025-1245ND
2013-07-015810-035-1230ND
2013-07-015810-042-13000.110 ppm
2013-07-015810-064-1210ND
2013-07-025810-013-1330ND
2013-07-025810-016-1430ND
2013-07-025810-052-13000.1000 ppm
2013-07-025810-065-1400ND
2013-07-085810-075-11150.220 ppm
2013-07-085810-096-12000.170 ppm
2013-07-085810-098-09300.170 ppm
2013-07-085810-104-10150.220 ppm
2013-07-085810-105-10250.220 ppm
2013-07-085810-106-10350.210 ppm
2013-07-085810-144-09000.250 ppm
2013-07-115810-078-10450.170 ppm
2013-07-115810-085-1300ND
2013-07-115810-088-10150.120 ppm
2013-07-115810-107-09400.240 ppm
2013-07-115810-133-11100.160 ppm
2013-07-115810-146-11450.240 ppm
2013-07-165810-015-0945ND
2013-07-165810-061-0915ND
2013-07-165810-080-11000.110 ppm
2013-07-165810-082-1030ND
2013-07-165810-083-08300.120 ppm
2013-07-165810-101-1130ND
2013-07-165810-145-12000.150 ppm
2013-07-175810-007-1215ND
2013-07-175810-072-1240ND
2013-07-175810-135-13200.280 ppm
2013-07-185810-002-1420ND
2013-07-185810-017-1105ND
2013-07-245810-076-14400.110 ppm
2013-07-245810-077-11450.180 ppm
2013-07-245810-079-10200.130 ppm
2013-07-245810-081-10450.150 ppm
2013-07-245810-087-1410ND
2013-07-245810-089-12200.110 ppm
2013-07-245810-094-10000.110 ppm
2013-07-245810-102-13400.150 ppm
2013-07-255810-020-11200.130 ppm
2013-07-255810-028-13150.150 ppm
2013-07-255810-051-11050.120 ppm
2013-07-255810-062-12050.360 ppm
2013-07-255810-066-0915ND
2013-07-255810-071-0900ND
2013-07-255810-097-12500.180 ppm
2013-07-255810-130-12300.230 ppm
2013-07-255810-246-1050ND
2013-07-295810-001-0910ND
2013-07-295810-034-0735ND
2013-07-295810-054-0945ND
2013-07-295810-056-0930ND
2013-07-295810-067-1210ND
2013-07-295810-069-0755ND
2013-07-295810-070-0806ND
2013-07-295810-074-0605ND
2013-07-295810-092-0925ND
2013-07-295810-111-05250.140 ppm
2013-07-295810-127-12150.310 ppm
2013-07-295810-129-10350.280 ppm
2013-07-295810-136-13000.220 ppm
2013-07-295810-137-11300.250 ppm
2013-07-295810-142-09580.260 ppm
2013-07-305810-004-1325ND
2013-07-305810-005-13100.110 ppm
2013-07-305810-032-1231ND
2013-07-305810-073-1150ND
2013-07-315810-012-1220ND
2013-07-315810-019-1015ND
2013-07-315810-021-13150.110 ppm
2013-07-315810-022-1125ND
2013-07-315810-029-10500.120 ppm
2013-07-315810-030-1135ND
2013-08-015810-010-1010ND
2013-08-015810-027-10230.110 ppm
2013-08-015810-033-1155ND
2013-08-075810-240-12100.150 ppm
2013-09-095810-055-1400ND
2013-09-195810-018-10500.140 ppm
2013-09-265810-244-12550.1000 ppm
2013-10-165810-246-1000ND
2013-11-135810-103-1120ND
2013-12-165810-011-10200.140 ppm
2014-01-275810-246-1005ND
2014-04-295810-246-0930ND
2014-05-085810-244-1000ND
2014-06-195810-004-1105ND
2014-06-195810-061-0950ND
2014-06-195810-062-1000ND
2014-06-195810-064-1120ND
2014-07-015810-034-0920ND
2014-07-085810-015-1000ND
2014-07-085810-042-10300.130 ppm
2014-07-095810-007-1325ND
2014-07-095810-052-11300.120 ppm
2014-07-105810-033-1150ND
2014-07-155810-018-10300.130 ppm
2014-07-165810-035-1100ND
2014-07-165810-066-0915ND
2014-07-165810-074-1155ND
2014-07-175810-019-1150ND
2014-07-175810-051-11000.1000 ppm
2014-07-175810-054-1300ND
2014-07-175810-071-1020ND
2014-07-235810-013-1230ND
2014-07-245810-020-13300.130 ppm
2014-07-245810-065-1115ND
2014-07-295810-032-11300.110 ppm
2014-08-215810-010-1115ND
2014-08-215810-012-1200ND
2014-08-215810-028-13450.320 ppm
2014-08-215810-069-1030ND
2014-08-215810-244-0945ND
2014-08-275810-017-1045ND
2014-08-285810-030-1130ND
2014-08-285810-073-0940ND
2014-09-045810-016-0930ND
2014-09-165810-021-1200ND
2014-09-165810-072-1045ND
2014-09-175810-056-1040ND
2014-09-175810-070-0940ND
2014-09-245810-001-09450.1000 ppm
2014-09-245810-002-1120ND
2014-10-015810-029-10300.110 ppm
2014-10-015810-067-0945ND
2014-10-085810-022-0930ND
2014-10-085810-027-1120ND
2014-10-085810-055-1020ND
2014-10-095810-025-1145ND
2014-10-155810-244-0930ND
2014-12-105810-011-13150.150 ppm
2015-01-155810-244-1140ND
2015-07-085810-018-11000.120 ppm
2015-07-085810-052-09500.150 ppm
2015-07-095810-042-12150.140 ppm
2015-07-095810-071-1100ND
2015-07-095810-073-0915ND
2015-07-155810-016-1210ND
2015-07-155810-022-1110ND
2015-07-155810-062-0915ND
2015-07-155810-072-1045ND
2015-07-165810-001-1200ND
2015-07-165810-021-1255ND
2015-07-165810-030-1155ND
2015-07-165810-051-10150.1000 ppm
2015-07-165810-055-1135ND
2015-07-225810-019-1050ND
2015-07-225810-035-1110ND
2015-07-225810-065-1150ND
2015-08-065810-064-1035ND
2015-08-065810-066-1130ND
2015-08-125810-011-11000.130 ppm
2015-08-125810-015-0935ND
2015-08-125810-020-12000.110 ppm
2015-08-125810-025-1035ND
2015-08-135810-013-0945ND
2015-08-175810-061-1126ND
2015-08-195810-007-1338ND
2015-08-205810-030-1140ND
2015-08-205810-074-1102ND
2016-01-285810-081-10300.160 ppm
2016-02-085810-017-12420.120 ppm
2016-02-085810-089-09500.120 ppm
2016-03-095810-097-09400.220 ppm
2016-03-165810-020-09000.220 ppm
2016-06-085810-030-11000.110 ppm
2016-06-235810-076-13450.120 ppm
2016-07-075810-011-11550.1000 ppm
2016-07-075810-013-1240ND
2016-07-075810-015-0945ND
2016-07-075810-018-09400.130 ppm
2016-07-075810-035-1130ND
2016-07-075810-051-09000.120 ppm
2016-07-075810-062-1210ND
2016-07-075810-064-1045ND
2016-07-075810-072-1030ND
2016-07-075810-080-09500.160 ppm
2016-07-075810-101-12000.170 ppm
2016-07-075810-104-10000.230 ppm
2016-07-075810-105-11300.230 ppm
2016-07-075810-244-1100ND
2016-07-115810-001-11200.110 ppm
2016-07-115810-069-1230ND
2016-07-115810-070-1000ND
2016-07-115810-073-1300ND
2016-07-115810-075-10000.220 ppm
2016-07-115810-077-09400.170 ppm
2016-07-115810-083-11500.110 ppm
2016-07-115810-102-12300.170 ppm
2016-07-115810-142-12250.260 ppm
2016-07-115810-144-11150.250 ppm
2016-07-115810-145-09150.160 ppm
2016-07-125810-012-0915ND
2016-07-125810-016-09150.120 ppm
2016-07-125810-019-1235ND
2016-07-125810-021-11400.110 ppm
2016-07-125810-025-1000ND
2016-07-125810-027-10100.110 ppm
2016-07-125810-042-10150.140 ppm
2016-07-125810-074-1400ND
2016-07-125810-087-12100.1000 ppm
2016-07-125810-094-10100.130 ppm
2016-07-125810-098-10000.180 ppm
2016-07-135810-010-11500.1000 ppm
2016-07-135810-022-1000ND
2016-07-135810-061-1150ND
2016-07-135810-066-1015ND
2016-07-135810-085-1350ND
2016-07-135810-096-11300.190 ppm
2016-07-135810-111-11300.140 ppm
2016-07-135810-240-11400.190 ppm
2016-07-135810-246-0910ND
2016-07-145810-029-09250.130 ppm
2016-07-145810-034-1200ND
2016-07-145810-054-0930ND
2016-07-145810-065-1020ND
2016-07-145810-071-1150ND
2016-07-145810-107-11150.260 ppm
2016-07-195810-078-14150.250 ppm
2016-07-195810-139-13450.260 ppm
2016-07-205810-007-1300ND
2016-07-205810-092-1050ND
2016-07-205810-133-11000.180 ppm
2016-07-215810-082-1240ND
2016-07-265810-052-0915ND
2016-07-275810-030-14400.1000 ppm
2016-08-095810-248-13580.130 ppm
2016-08-315810-032-12100.120 ppm
2016-09-065810-030-12000.110 ppm
2016-09-065810-055-1105ND
2016-09-285810-146-12500.280 ppm
2016-11-075810-135-10250.250 ppm
2016-11-141233-250-1200ND
2017-04-265810-056-1235ND
2017-07-185810-002-1115ND
2017-09-059590-001-1100ND
2017-09-059590-062-0845ND
2017-09-079590-073-13450.1000 ppm
2017-09-119590-022-1115ND
2017-09-119590-034-1330ND
2017-09-119590-051-11000.130 ppm
2017-09-119590-052-10000.140 ppm
2017-09-129590-010-09300.1000 ppm
2017-09-129590-021-11150.110 ppm
2017-09-129590-042-12300.150 ppm
2017-09-129590-064-1145ND
2017-09-129590-066-1030ND
2017-09-129590-070-1200ND
2017-09-129590-072-13300.110 ppm
2017-09-129590-074-0910ND
2017-09-139590-054-1335ND
2017-09-139590-056-1045ND
2017-09-149590-011-09000.140 ppm
2017-09-149590-071-0945ND
2017-09-199590-015-1330ND
2017-09-199590-018-13000.150 ppm
2017-09-199590-020-09000.140 ppm
2017-09-199590-025-1120ND
2017-09-199590-032-11000.130 ppm
2017-09-219590-065-1145ND
2017-09-259590-019-1030ND
2017-09-269590-013-0900ND
2017-09-269590-030-11300.120 ppm
2017-09-269590-061-1100ND
2017-09-279590-007-1235ND
2017-09-279590-027-12000.130 ppm
2017-09-289590-035-0920ND
2017-09-289590-069-1315ND
2017-10-039590-029-09450.140 ppm
2017-12-129590-012-11400.110 ppm
2017-12-139590-055-1320ND