EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE



City of Avondale

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.255 ppm2220ND - 1.10 ppm
20130.328 ppm2421ND - 1.10 ppm
20140.311 ppm18180.1000 ppm - 1.13 ppm
20160.352 ppm550.120 ppm - 1.14 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-212021575-01I1.09 ppm
2012-02-212021568-01I0.250 ppm
2012-02-222021662-01I0.110 ppm
2012-02-222021661-01I0.190 ppm
2012-02-222021659-01I0.190 ppm
2012-05-072050554-01I1.10 ppm
2012-05-072050552-010.240 ppm
2012-05-072050550-010.150 ppm
2012-05-092080845-010.110 ppm
2012-05-092050846-010.210 ppm
2012-05-222051723-01I0.150 ppm
2012-08-072080599-01I0.360 ppm
2012-08-072080597-01I0.230 ppm
2012-08-082080742-01I0.160 ppm
2012-08-082080741-01I0.180 ppm
2012-08-132081046-01I0.180 ppm
2012-08-132081047-01I0.1000 ppm
2012-11-142111064-01I0.140 ppm
2012-11-142111058-01I0.230 ppm
2012-11-152111192-010.240 ppm
2013-02-053020315-011.08 ppm
2013-02-063020474-01I0.240 ppm
2013-02-073020590-010.180 ppm
2013-02-073020587-010.240 ppm
2013-02-133021057-01I0.210 ppm
2013-02-143021154-01I0.110 ppm
2013-05-023050231-011.08 ppm
2013-05-073050603-01I0.190 ppm
2013-05-083050746-01I0.170 ppm
2013-05-083050744-01I0.110 ppm
2013-05-133051057-010.160 ppm
2013-05-133051061-010.190 ppm
2013-08-063080462-01I1.09 ppm
2013-08-083080750-01I0.160 ppm
2013-08-083080748-01I0.170 ppm
2013-08-153081410-010.380 ppm
2013-08-153081405-010.110 ppm
2013-10-303102598-010.230 ppm
2013-10-303102597-011.10 ppm
2013-10-313102691-010.180 ppm
2013-11-143111193-01I0.480 ppm
2014-01-274012115-01IOC1.09 ppm
2014-01-274012114-01I0.240 ppm
2014-01-284012237-01I0.120 ppm
2014-01-284012236-01I0.150 ppm
2014-01-294012322-01I0.180 ppm
2014-02-134021148-01I0.120 ppm
2014-05-204051823-01I0.160 ppm
2014-05-204051822-01I0.210 ppm
2014-05-204051718-01I1.000 ppm
2014-05-204051717-01I0.1000 ppm
2014-05-204051714-01I0.170 ppm
2014-05-224052004-01I0.170 ppm
2014-08-064080578-01I0.1000 ppm
2014-08-064080590-01I0.210 ppm
2014-08-074080712-01I0.170 ppm
2014-08-074080711-01I1.13 ppm
2014-08-074080710-01I0.130 ppm
2014-08-074080708-01I0.150 ppm
2016-08-166081525-011.14 ppm
2016-08-166081525-050.180 ppm
2016-08-166081525-040.160 ppm
2016-08-166081525-030.160 ppm
2016-08-166081525-020.120 ppm