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EWG's Tap Water Database

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Fluoride

Forrest City Waterworks

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

142

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20100.915 ppm26260.730 ppm - 1.12 ppm
20110.833 ppm1716ND - 1.20 ppm
20120.790 ppm27270.600 ppm - 1.07 ppm
20130.746 ppm25250.540 ppm - 0.880 ppm
20140.682 ppm2322ND - 0.930 ppm
20150.751 ppm24240.430 ppm - 0.950 ppm

ppm = parts per million.

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

The enforceable federal standard that defines the highest level of a contaminant allowed in drinking water.

ppm = parts per million.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level Goal (MCLG)4 ppm

A non-enforceable federal health guideline. For cancer-causing chemicals, these health goals are typically set to zero.

ppm = parts per million.

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2010-01-051001100360.860 ppm
2010-01-051001100350.730 ppm
2010-02-091005300230.910 ppm
2010-02-091005300220.850 ppm
2010-02-101004200430.930 ppm
2010-02-101004200420.790 ppm
2010-03-041007400111.12 ppm
2010-03-041007400100.740 ppm
2010-04-011010200180.910 ppm
2010-04-011010200170.840 ppm
2010-05-061013700391.12 ppm
2010-05-061013700400.990 ppm
2010-06-071016500051.05 ppm
2010-06-071016500040.770 ppm
2010-07-191020800131.000 ppm
2010-07-191020800120.960 ppm
2010-08-031022100130.930 ppm
2010-08-031022100110.920 ppm
2010-09-011025000230.830 ppm
2010-09-011025000220.860 ppm
2010-10-111029200280.960 ppm
2010-10-111029200290.880 ppm
2010-11-011031200231.01 ppm
2010-11-011031200240.970 ppm
2010-12-011034700101.07 ppm
2010-12-011034700110.800 ppm
2011-01-111101800100.990 ppm
2011-01-111101800090.880 ppm
2011-02-111104600181.06 ppm
2011-02-111104600170.820 ppm
2011-03-171108100331.17 ppm
2011-03-171108100321.09 ppm
2011-04-111111700050.900 ppm
2011-04-111111700040.840 ppm
2011-05-25111460003ND
2011-05-261115200070.630 ppm
2011-06-271118200190.630 ppm
2011-07-121119900530.660 ppm
2011-08-191124100070.780 ppm
2011-09-141126900060.830 ppm
2011-09-141126900071.20 ppm
2011-10-311131100110.900 ppm
2011-11-231133300140.780 ppm
2012-01-241203000170.770 ppm
2012-01-241203000160.730 ppm
2012-02-05Y804600040.800 ppm
2012-02-291207300040.660 ppm
2012-02-291207300050.780 ppm
2012-03-291210000170.870 ppm
2012-03-291210000180.650 ppm
2012-04-111211400090.900 ppm
2012-04-111211400080.830 ppm
2012-04-251212800020.720 ppm
2012-04-251212800030.850 ppm
2012-05-301216300160.780 ppm
2012-05-311216300150.850 ppm
2012-06-281219100060.870 ppm
2012-06-281219100070.600 ppm
2012-07-241221200070.880 ppm
2012-07-241221200080.860 ppm
2012-08-071222700020.810 ppm
2012-08-071222700010.920 ppm
2012-09-051226100090.820 ppm
2012-09-051226100081.07 ppm
2012-10-181230300050.620 ppm
2012-10-181230300060.750 ppm
2012-11-151233800130.700 ppm
2012-11-151233800120.730 ppm
2012-12-141235500090.770 ppm
2012-12-141235500100.730 ppm
2013-01-231303500070.850 ppm
2013-01-231303500080.790 ppm
2013-02-121304400020.700 ppm
2013-02-121304400010.780 ppm
2013-02-281307000170.540 ppm
2013-02-281307000180.720 ppm
2013-03-081308500240.670 ppm
2013-03-181308500230.640 ppm
2013-04-221312100210.740 ppm
2013-04-221312100220.720 ppm
2013-05-131314800090.710 ppm
2013-05-131314800080.700 ppm
2013-06-171317500200.770 ppm
2013-07-171321100060.650 ppm
2013-07-171321100070.790 ppm
2013-08-131323200270.800 ppm
2013-08-131323200260.880 ppm
2013-09-111326800060.790 ppm
2013-09-111326800050.740 ppm
2013-10-081329500070.740 ppm
2013-10-081329500060.760 ppm
2013-11-071332400120.720 ppm
2013-11-071332400130.780 ppm
2013-12-091336500170.820 ppm
2013-12-091336500160.840 ppm
2014-01-101401600420.930 ppm
2014-01-101401600430.720 ppm
2014-02-061404900200.600 ppm
2014-02-061404900210.720 ppm
2014-03-051407600240.710 ppm
2014-03-051407600250.650 ppm
2014-04-031410400170.670 ppm
2014-04-031410400180.710 ppm
2014-04-23141140012ND
2014-05-061413200410.740 ppm
2014-05-061413200400.780 ppm
2014-06-061416700220.680 ppm
2014-06-061416700230.630 ppm
2014-07-161421100030.770 ppm
2014-07-161421100040.600 ppm
2014-08-151423700170.800 ppm
2014-08-151423700150.670 ppm
2014-09-031425800270.680 ppm
2014-09-031425800260.860 ppm
2014-10-06Y1428600300.760 ppm
2014-10-06Y1428600320.710 ppm
2014-12-08Y1434900230.680 ppm
2014-12-08Y1434900240.620 ppm
2015-01-16Y1502600140.710 ppm
2015-01-16Y1502600150.430 ppm
2015-02-27Y1507500190.760 ppm
2015-02-27Y1507500180.520 ppm
2015-03-16Y1508200230.460 ppm
2015-03-16Y1508200240.620 ppm
2015-04-10Y1511100420.600 ppm
2015-04-10Y1511100410.730 ppm
2015-05-05Y1513400390.750 ppm
2015-05-05Y1513400400.790 ppm
2015-06-11Y1517400070.800 ppm
2015-06-11Y1517400080.660 ppm
2015-07-14Y1520200240.870 ppm
2015-07-14Y1520200320.810 ppm
2015-08-12Y1523600100.800 ppm
2015-08-12Y1523600110.930 ppm
2015-09-18Y1527100100.950 ppm
2015-09-18Y1527100110.850 ppm
2015-10-14Y1529900190.830 ppm
2015-10-14Y1529900180.810 ppm
2015-11-03Y1531300430.810 ppm
2015-11-03Y1531300440.880 ppm
2015-12-08Y1535200100.860 ppm
2015-12-08Y1535200110.800 ppm