EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE


Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)

City of Staunton

Trihalomethanes are cancer-causing contaminants that form during water treatment with chlorine and other disinfectants. The total trihalomethanes group includes four chemicals: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform. Read More.

Studies conducted in the U.S. and Europe have found that drinking tap water that carries disinfection byproducts increases the risk of developing bladder cancer. In animal studies, all trihalomethanes cause liver, kidney and intestinal tumors. Some human epidemiological studies also reported an association between disinfection byproducts and an increased risk of problems during pregnancy, including spontaneous miscarriage, cardiovascular defects, neural tube defects and low birth weight.

The health guideline of 0.15 parts per billion, or ppb, for the group of four trihalomethanes, or THM4/TTHM, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a one-in-one-million lifetime cancer risk level.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
201214.6 ppb448.28 ppb - 22.8 ppb
201323.0 ppb778.37 ppb - 43.2 ppb
201420.8 ppb16168.70 ppb - 52.1 ppb
201527.3 ppb16167.43 ppb - 53.6 ppb
201620.0 ppb16168.83 ppb - 53.6 ppb
201723.6 ppb161612.6 ppb - 50.1 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.15 ppb

The health guideline of 0.15 parts per billion, or ppb, for the group of four trihalomethanes, or THM4/TTHM, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a one-in-one-million lifetime cancer risk level.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 80 ppb

The legal limit for the group of four trihalomethanes, established in 1998, was based on the need for residual disinfectant levels in water served to customers and the cost of treatment. This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to exposure to trihalomethanes.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-091201638-03AT8.28 ppb
2012-04-021204097-03AT14.1 ppb
2012-07-021207061-02AT13.4 ppb
2012-10-011210104-02AT22.8 ppb
2013-01-071301476-04AT8.37 ppb
2013-04-011304091-04AT10.00 ppb
2013-07-011307110-04AT23.3 ppb
2013-11-041311241-08AT26.1 ppb
2013-11-041311241-06AT43.2 ppb
2013-11-041311241-04AT24.4 ppb
2013-11-041311241-10AT25.8 ppb
2014-02-031402161-08AT14.1 ppb
2014-02-031402161-06AT13.2 ppb
2014-02-031402161-10AT8.89 ppb
2014-02-031402161-04AT8.70 ppb
2014-05-051405388-08AT17.3 ppb
2014-05-051405388-10AT13.0 ppb
2014-05-051405388-06AT17.8 ppb
2014-05-051405388-04AT14.4 ppb
2014-08-041408276-05AT52.1 ppb
2014-08-041408276-07AT37.8 ppb
2014-08-041408276-03AT29.1 ppb
2014-08-041408276-09AT28.0 ppb
2014-11-031411162-10A-T30.8 ppb
2014-11-031411162-08A-T14.9 ppb
2014-11-031411162-04A-T15.7 ppb
2014-11-031411162-06A-T17.0 ppb
2015-02-0200281-REI CONSUL7.43 ppb
2015-02-0200281-REI CONSUL7.57 ppb
2015-02-0200281-REI CONSUL9.96 ppb
2015-02-0200281-REI CONSUL12.5 ppb
2015-05-0400281-REI CONSUL13.1 ppb
2015-05-0400281-REI CONSUL15.6 ppb
2015-05-0400281-REI CONSUL24.6 ppb
2015-05-0400281-REI CONSUL28.0 ppb
2015-08-0300281-REI CONSUL35.8 ppb
2015-08-0300281-REI CONSUL39.7 ppb
2015-08-0300281-REI CONSUL51.8 ppb
2015-08-0300281-REI CONSUL53.6 ppb
2015-11-0200281-REI CONSUL29.0 ppb
2015-11-0200281-REI CONSUL22.8 ppb
2015-11-0200281-REI CONSUL37.4 ppb
2015-11-0200281-REI CONSUL48.0 ppb
2016-02-011602111-10A8.83 ppb
2016-02-011602111-04A10.2 ppb
2016-02-011602111-06A12.5 ppb
2016-02-011602111-08A15.6 ppb
2016-05-0216050130-03A17.4 ppb
2016-05-0216050130-09A11.2 ppb
2016-05-0216050130-07A21.1 ppb
2016-05-0216050130-05A11.3 ppb
2016-08-0116080177-07A53.6 ppb
2016-08-0116080177-03A49.4 ppb
2016-08-0116080177-05A22.7 ppb
2016-08-01160801770-9A23.7 ppb
2016-11-0716110889-07A25.0 ppb
2016-11-0716110889-05A11.4 ppb
2016-11-0716110889-09A10.6 ppb
2016-11-0716110889-03A15.9 ppb
2017-02-0617020725-05A20.9 ppb
2017-02-0617020725-07A17.3 ppb
2017-02-0617020725-03A15.5 ppb
2017-02-0617020725-09A15.6 ppb
2017-05-0117050307-06A17.2 ppb
2017-05-0117050307-04A34.7 ppb
2017-05-0117050307-10A18.1 ppb
2017-05-0117050307-08A25.2 ppb
2017-08-0717081030-06A37.6 ppb
2017-08-0717081030-08A27.4 ppb
2017-08-0717081030-04A50.1 ppb
2017-08-0717081030-10A27.5 ppb
2017-11-0617110796-08A14.3 ppb
2017-11-0617110796-10A12.6 ppb
2017-11-0617110796-06A19.3 ppb
2017-11-0617110796-04A24.2 ppb