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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHPA)

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Perfluoroheptanoic acid is a member of a group of perfluorinated chemicals used in many consumer products. Perfluorinated chemicals can cause serious health effects, including cancer, endocrine disruption, accelerated puberty, liver and immune system damage, and thyroid changes. These chemicals are persistent in the environment and they accumulate in people. Click here to read more about perfluorinated chemicals.

2012-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

26

states detected

218

utilities detected

9.3 million

people served

23

states over health guideline

201

utilities over health guideline

6.6 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for perfluoroheptanoic acid

Cancer

Harm to the immune system

Hormone disruption

Harm to fetal growth and child development

Harm to the liver

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 1 ppt

The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppt for perfluoroheptanoic acid was defined by EWG based on studies by Phillipe Grandjean of Harvard University and many other independent researchers who found reduced effectiveness of vaccines and adverse impacts on mammary gland development from exposure to PFOA and PFOS, the two PFAS most widely detected in drinking water. This health guideline applies to the entire class of PFAS detected in water.

ppt = parts per trillion

States reporting perfluoroheptanoic acid in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
Florida142,700,329162,722,727
New York6127,70081,229,750
North Carolina721,006,990651,004,216
New Jersey5249,7298868,794
California7328,46812772,479
Delaware2398,3102398,310
Alabama27377,79328389,496
Georgia9361,2498360,680
Pennsylvania11210,05313242,954
Wisconsin005238,297
Arizona356,1354221,135
Massachusetts8147,2569189,256
Texas18178,72216177,519
Virginia1153,0001153,000
Colorado359,000359,000
Washington122,926252,041
New Hampshire128,000351,108
Minnesota347,837347,837
Michigan00140,891
New Mexico137,877137,877
South Carolina232,521232,521
Tennessee00123,960
Ohio116,551116,551
West Virginia213,925213,925
Maryland13,50013,500
Rhode Island36043604
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce perfluoroheptanoic acid

carbon filter icon

Activated Carbon

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of perfluoroheptanoic acid, 2012-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Devens Massdevelopment*Devens, MA13 of 155,171.1 ppt6,500
Ayer DPW Water DivisionAyer, MA17 of 185,062.1 ppt7,427
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA2 of 162,000.0 ppt34,257
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA12 of 191,652.8 ppt35,000
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA38 of 421,313.3 ppt18,954
Middleton Water DepartmentMiddleton, MA4 of 10853.0 ppt6,138
Danvers Water Department*Middleton, MA4 of 10853.0 ppt35,480
Suez Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE4 of 428.8 ppt97,310
Rome*Rome, GA4 of 427.5 ppt45,586
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO34 of 3826.8 ppt19,000
Graystone S/dFuquay-varina, NC3 of 425.0 ppt38
Lillington Water System - VandercroftLillington, NC3 of 425.0 ppt718
Lillington Water System-riverbluffLillington, NC3 of 425.0 ppt93
City of Dunn*Erwin, NC2 of 425.0 ppt11,747
Woodland Run Mobile Home S/dFayetteville, NC3 of 425.0 ppt108
Sampson Co. Water District Ii - PlainviewClinton, NC2 of 425.0 ppt2,786
Moore County Public Utilities-hidden Lakes S/dCarthage, NC3 of 425.0 ppt165
Eastover Sanitary DistrictEastover, NC2 of 425.0 ppt5,630
Falcon Water System*Falcon, NC2 of 425.0 ppt714
Lillington Water SystemLillington, NC3 of 425.0 ppt4,043
East Moore Water District*Carthage, NC3 of 425.0 ppt5,200
Bragg Communities/nta-, NC3 of 425.0 ppt3,625
Coats, Town ofCoats, NC3 of 425.0 ppt2,246
Harnett County Department of Public Utilities*Lillington, NC3 of 425.0 ppt90,004
Angier, Town ofAngier, NC3 of 425.0 ppt6,802
Linden, Town ofLinden Street, NC3 of 425.0 ppt1,973
Woodlake Water & Sewer Inc.Vass, NC3 of 425.0 ppt1,945
Newburgh CityNewburgh, NY4 of 418.5 ppt28,000
Highland Water AuthorityGadsden, AL4 of 417.5 ppt5,271
Northeast Etowah County Water Co-opGadsden, AL4 of 417.5 ppt4,176
Whorton Bend Water and Fire Pro AuthorityGadsden, AL4 of 417.5 ppt1,890
Gadsden Water Works and Sewer Board*Gadsden, AL4 of 417.5 ppt44,637
Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer H2goLeland, NC3 of 416.6 ppt20,663
Pear Meadows S/dFuquay-varina, NC3 of 815.0 ppt172
Town of Fuquay-Varina*Fuquay-varina, NC3 of 815.0 ppt21,241
Oatman Water CompanyScottsdale, AZ2 of 214.5 ppt129
Cape Fear Public Utility Authority - WilmingtonWilmington, NC3 of 413.3 ppt128,800
Brunswick County Water System*Leland, NC3 of 612.2 ppt77,891
Navassa, Town ofNavassa, NC3 of 612.2 ppt747
Navassa, Town of-cedar Hill AnnexNavassa, NC3 of 612.2 ppt25
Ocean Isle Beach, Town of*Ocean Isle Bch, NC3 of 612.2 ppt6,847
Shallotte, Town ofShallote, NC3 of 612.2 ppt5,372
Northwest, City ofLeland, NC3 of 612.2 ppt859
Town of Oak IslandOak Island, NC3 of 612.2 ppt20,523
Leland, Town ofLeland, NC3 of 612.2 ppt2,710
Southport, City ofSouthport, NC3 of 612.2 ppt6,617
Holden Beach, Town ofHolden Beach, NC3 of 612.2 ppt5,077
Town of Navassa - PhoenixNavassa, NC3 of 612.2 ppt71
City of Miami BeachMiami Beach, FL1 of 212.0 ppt95,000
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN5 of 1211.6 ppt27,378

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHPA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA2 of 162,000.0 ppt34,257
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA12 of 191,652.8 ppt35,000
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA38 of 421,313.3 ppt18,954
Danvers Water Department*Middleton, MA4 of 10853.0 ppt35,480
Suez Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE4 of 428.8 ppt97,310
Rome*Rome, GA4 of 427.5 ppt45,586
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO34 of 3826.8 ppt19,000
Harnett County Department of Public Utilities*Lillington, NC3 of 425.0 ppt90,004
City of Dunn*Erwin, NC2 of 425.0 ppt11,747
Newburgh CityNewburgh, NY4 of 418.5 ppt28,000
Gadsden Water Works and Sewer Board*Gadsden, AL4 of 417.5 ppt44,637
Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer H2goLeland, NC3 of 416.6 ppt20,663
Town of Fuquay-Varina*Fuquay-varina, NC3 of 815.0 ppt21,241
Cape Fear Public Utility Authority - WilmingtonWilmington, NC3 of 413.3 ppt128,800
Brunswick County Water System*Leland, NC3 of 612.2 ppt77,891
Town of Oak IslandOak Island, NC3 of 612.2 ppt20,523
City of Miami BeachMiami Beach, FL1 of 212.0 ppt95,000
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN5 of 1211.6 ppt27,378
Widefield WSD*Colorado Springs, CO9 of 1710.1 ppt19,000
Rainbow City Utilities Board*Rainbow City, AL3 of 410.00 ppt11,748
Fort Drum*Fort Drum, NY2 of 610.00 ppt34,400
Artesian Water Company*Newark, DE11 of 368.06 ppt301,000
West Morgan-East Lawrence Water Authority*Decatur, AL1 of 47.50 ppt26,130
City of Sanford*Sanford, NC1 of 47.25 ppt41,483
Issaquah Water SystemIssaquah, WA3 of 96.87 ppt22,926
Albertville Utilities Board*Albertville, AL4 of 86.25 ppt29,991
Old North Utilities Services/Ft. BraggFort Bragg, NC2 of 46.00 ppt65,000
City of FountainFountain, CO5 of 125.83 ppt21,000
Warminster Municipal Authority*Warminster, PA7 of 385.82 ppt40,000
South Orange Water DepartmentSouth Orange, NJ3 of 75.71 ppt16,964
Hialeah GardensHialeah Gardens, FL2 of 65.50 ppt22,600
Miami Dade Water and Sewer Authority*Miami, FL2 of 65.50 ppt2,300,000
Liberty Water Lpsco*Avondale, AZ2 of 125.00 ppt45,298
Town of Holly SpringsHolly Springs, NC1 of 45.00 ppt26,000
Southside Water Works*Southside, AL3 of 85.00 ppt10,998
City of Vienna*Vienna, WV2 of 64.92 ppt12,507
Northeast Alabama Water System*Fort Payne, AL6 of 263.46 ppt42,609
Emerald Coast Utilities Authority*Pensacola, FL6 of 523.23 ppt249,872
Fayetteville Public Works Commission*Fayetteville, NC2 of 83.13 ppt211,997
East End Service Area - Prince William County Service AuthorityWoodbridge, VA1 of 43.11 ppt153,000
Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District*Lake Elsinore, CA4 of 173.06 ppt142,264
Woodruff Roebuck WD*Woodruff, SC1 of 43.00 ppt25,284
Dover Water DepartmentDover, NH1 of 53.00 ppt28,000
Warrington Twp Water&sew DeptWarrington, PA2 of 172.68 ppt18,400
City of Abilene*Abilene, TX2 of 122.60 ppt123,886
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 92.60 ppt97,645
City of Albemarle*Albemarle, NC2 of 82.50 ppt16,500
Boaz Water and Sewer Board*Boaz, AL1 of 42.50 ppt29,196
Town of Apex*Apex, NC1 of 42.50 ppt44,164
V.A.W. Water System, Inc*Vinemont, AL1 of 82.50 ppt29,985

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHPA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.