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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of a group of perfluorinated chemicals used in many consumer products. PFOS and other perfluorinated chemicals can cause serious health effects, including cancer, endocrine disruption, accelerated puberty, liver and immune system damage, and thyroid changes. These chemicals are persistent in the environment and they accumulate in people. Click here to read more about perfluorinated chemicals.

2012-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

27

states detected

200

utilities detected

11 million

people served

26

states over health guideline

175

utilities over health guideline

9.9 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for PFOS

Cancer

Harm to the immune system

Hormone disruption

Harm to fetal growth and child development

Harm to the liver

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 1 ppt

The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppt for PFOS was defined by EWG based on studies by Phillipe Grandjean of Harvard University and many other independent researchers who found reduced effectiveness of vaccines and adverse impacts on mammary gland development from exposure to PFOA and PFOS, the two PFAS most widely detected in drinking water. This health guideline applies to the entire class of PFAS detected in water.

ppt = parts per trillion

States reporting PFOS in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
Florida263,147,966263,147,966
California202,031,706202,031,706
New York101,182,675191,204,643
New Jersey8884,136101,103,566
Ohio8349,9318349,931
North Carolina5319,0916334,379
Delaware1301,0001301,000
Alabama23306,52822298,656
Wisconsin153,0006291,297
Arizona6266,8636266,863
Pennsylvania7199,9417199,941
Texas18178,72216177,519
Michigan4164,7294164,729
Massachusetts7147,6387147,638
Alaska007115,049
Minnesota240,9383105,288
New Hampshire762,797988,752
Georgia375,208375,208
Rhode Island639,154762,018
Colorado359,000359,000
Maine245,465245,465
Illinois227,393227,393
Washington122,926122,926
Indiana116,800116,800
West Virginia115,652115,652
Kentucky13,71313,713
Tennessee23,31223,312
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce PFOS

carbon filter icon

Activated Carbon

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of PFOS, 2012-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Ayer DPW Water DivisionAyer, MA6 of 633,833.3 ppt7,427
Devens Massdevelopment*Devens, MA8 of 933,666.7 ppt6,500
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA2 of 175,294.1 ppt34,257
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA6 of 122,791.7 ppt18,954
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA11 of 181,100.8 ppt35,000
Pawling Water District #1Pawling, NY4 of 16270.8 ppt100
Pawling Village*Pawling, NY4 of 16270.8 ppt2,200
Oatman Water CompanyScottsdale, AZ2 of 2265.0 ppt129
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO35 of 38169.7 ppt19,000
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL2 of 2160.0 ppt19,000
Issaquah Water SystemIssaquah, WA3 of 9158.8 ppt22,926
Newburgh CityNewburgh, NY4 of 4150.0 ppt28,000
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN66 of 146124.2 ppt27,378
Horsham Water&sewer Authority*Horsham, PA169 of 39597.2 ppt25,000
Rome*Rome, GA4 of 495.0 ppt45,586
Wright-Patterson AFB Area A PWSWright Patterson Afb, OH4 of 885.0 ppt16,551
Artesian Water Company*Newark, DE4 of 3977.9 ppt301,000
Warminster Municipal Authority*Warminster, PA10 of 3872.8 ppt40,000
Ocala Palms (consec.)Ocala, FL2 of 250.5 ppt100
City of Ocala*Ocala, FL2 of 250.5 ppt50,924
City of North Miami*North Miami, FL2 of 250.0 ppt80,000
Oakland Association Inc.Oakland, RI3 of 548.9 ppt175
FKAA J. Robert Dean Water Treatment PlantFlorida City, FL2 of 248.5 ppt73,090
Warrington Twp Water&sew DeptWarrington, PA3 of 1748.4 ppt18,400
Town Creek Water SystemTown Creek, AL2 of 445.0 ppt1,635
West Morgan-East Lawrence Water Authority*Decatur, AL2 of 445.0 ppt26,130
Trinity Water Works SystemTrinity, AL2 of 445.0 ppt2,475
Camp Pendleton (South)Camp Pendleton, CA15 of 9741.7 ppt39,400
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 940.3 ppt97,645
Addison Water Works*Addison, AL4 of 840.0 ppt2,544
V.A.W. Water System, Inc*Vinemont, AL4 of 840.0 ppt29,985
Whorton Bend Water and Fire Pro AuthorityGadsden, AL3 of 435.0 ppt1,890
Gadsden Water Works and Sewer Board*Gadsden, AL3 of 435.0 ppt44,637
Highland Water AuthorityGadsden, AL3 of 435.0 ppt5,271
Northeast Etowah County Water Co-opGadsden, AL3 of 435.0 ppt4,176
Widefield WSD*Colorado Springs, CO6 of 1734.6 ppt19,000
Montebello Land & Water CompanyMontebello, CA4 of 634.3 ppt32,219
Liberty Water Lpsco*Avondale, AZ2 of 1234.2 ppt45,298
Sanford Water DistrictSanford, ME2 of 1633.8 ppt14,025
Atlantic City Municipal Utilities AuthorityAtlantic City, NJ5 of 732.9 ppt152,415
City of Martinsburg*Martinsburg, WV3 of 829.9 ppt15,652
Yorba Linda Water DistrictYorba Linda, CA14 of 1829.8 ppt77,513
California American Water Company - SuburbanSacramento, CA18 of 9629.3 ppt111,768
City of Miami BeachMiami Beach, FL1 of 229.0 ppt95,000
Pendleton County Water District #1/southFalmouth, KY2 of 427.1 ppt3,713
FreeportFreeport, IL2 of 726.7 ppt26,443
City of Greensboro*Greensboro, NC3 of 824.8 ppt277,080
City of LauderhillLauderhill, FL1 of 224.5 ppt55,000
Dover Water DepartmentDover, NH2 of 623.2 ppt28,000
Plainfield TownshipGrand Rapids, MI3 of 522.7 ppt40,891

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA2 of 175,294.1 ppt34,257
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA6 of 122,791.7 ppt18,954
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA11 of 181,100.8 ppt35,000
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO35 of 38169.7 ppt19,000
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL2 of 2160.0 ppt19,000
Issaquah Water SystemIssaquah, WA3 of 9158.8 ppt22,926
Newburgh CityNewburgh, NY4 of 4150.0 ppt28,000
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN66 of 146124.2 ppt27,378
Horsham Water&sewer Authority*Horsham, PA169 of 39597.2 ppt25,000
Rome*Rome, GA4 of 495.0 ppt45,586
Wright-Patterson AFB Area A PWSWright Patterson Afb, OH4 of 885.0 ppt16,551
Artesian Water Company*Newark, DE4 of 3977.9 ppt301,000
Warminster Municipal Authority*Warminster, PA10 of 3872.8 ppt40,000
City of Ocala*Ocala, FL2 of 250.5 ppt50,924
City of North Miami*North Miami, FL2 of 250.0 ppt80,000
FKAA J. Robert Dean Water Treatment PlantFlorida City, FL2 of 248.5 ppt73,090
Warrington Twp Water&sew DeptWarrington, PA3 of 1748.4 ppt18,400
West Morgan-East Lawrence Water Authority*Decatur, AL2 of 445.0 ppt26,130
Camp Pendleton (South)Camp Pendleton, CA15 of 9741.7 ppt39,400
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 940.3 ppt97,645
V.A.W. Water System, Inc*Vinemont, AL4 of 840.0 ppt29,985
Gadsden Water Works and Sewer Board*Gadsden, AL3 of 435.0 ppt44,637
Widefield WSD*Colorado Springs, CO6 of 1734.6 ppt19,000
Montebello Land & Water CompanyMontebello, CA4 of 634.3 ppt32,219
Liberty Water Lpsco*Avondale, AZ2 of 1234.2 ppt45,298
Sanford Water DistrictSanford, ME2 of 1633.8 ppt14,025
Atlantic City Municipal Utilities AuthorityAtlantic City, NJ5 of 732.9 ppt152,415
City of Martinsburg*Martinsburg, WV3 of 829.9 ppt15,652
Yorba Linda Water DistrictYorba Linda, CA14 of 1829.8 ppt77,513
California American Water Company - SuburbanSacramento, CA18 of 9629.3 ppt111,768
City of Miami BeachMiami Beach, FL1 of 229.0 ppt95,000
FreeportFreeport, IL2 of 726.7 ppt26,443
City of Greensboro*Greensboro, NC3 of 824.8 ppt277,080
City of LauderhillLauderhill, FL1 of 224.5 ppt55,000
Dover Water DepartmentDover, NH2 of 623.2 ppt28,000
Plainfield TownshipGrand Rapids, MI3 of 522.7 ppt40,891
Westfield Water DepartmentWestfield, MA3 of 1322.6 ppt42,000
BemidjiBemidji, MN4 of 1920.5 ppt13,560
City of TempeTempe, AZ6 of 2419.7 ppt165,000
Dyer Water DepartmentDyer, IN1 of 419.6 ppt16,800
Emerald Coast Utilities Authority*Pensacola, FL5 of 5219.2 ppt249,872
City of FountainFountain, CO4 of 1218.3 ppt21,000
ChatsworthChatsworth, GA4 of 1217.4 ppt28,262
City of LathropLathrop, CA2 of 816.8 ppt12,427
Liberty Utilities - Bellflower - NorwalkDowney, CA4 of 1216.2 ppt72,884
Montgomery County Water Services*Kettering, OH1 of 415.3 ppt96,498
Rainbow City Utilities Board*Rainbow City, AL1 of 415.0 ppt11,748
City of AnaheimAnaheim, CA11 of 3814.4 ppt450,000
West Lawrence Water Co-op*Moulton, AL2 of 1214.2 ppt14,562
City of Zephyrhills*Zephyrhills, FL2 of 1713.9 ppt21,823

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.