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Dichloroacetic acid

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Dichloroacetic acid, one of the group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards, is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. Haloacetic acids and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy. Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.

2015:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

44

states detected

13,577

utilities detected

173 million

people served

44

states over health guideline

12,993

utilities over health guideline

165 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for dichloroacetic acid

Cancer

Harm to reproduction and child development

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

Health Guideline 0.7 ppb

The health guideline of 0.7 ppb for dichloroacetic acid was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

ppb = parts per billion.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level Goal (MCLG)0 ppb

A non-enforceable federal health guideline. For cancer-causing chemicals, these health goals are typically set to zero.

ppb = parts per billion.

States reporting dichloroacetic acid in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
California59026,881,98864830,402,970
Texas1,77922,017,7131,83922,638,047
New York77917,416,05480617,475,186
Illinois89311,129,86190011,198,963
Ohio7589,532,1077999,686,207
Georgia3867,087,5024117,681,951
Massachusetts1857,210,2892027,459,361
North Carolina6397,371,4056507,404,565
Virginia3575,290,2893635,304,478
New Jersey1224,358,5281454,543,451
Washington3334,034,5113594,512,534
Missouri4514,206,7964514,206,796
Louisiana5093,710,0145614,065,277
South Carolina2653,344,5372693,434,750
Minnesota4253,355,8574293,428,725
Oklahoma6523,117,6056583,222,475
Wisconsin2272,672,6792543,084,375
Arkansas4652,727,2374812,797,280
Nevada302,385,822322,405,031
Pennsylvania2892,293,0192932,298,957
Iowa4872,213,1354912,240,695
Kansas5071,989,8315562,172,281
Utah751,636,503811,776,098
New Mexico911,058,6721811,535,511
Colorado2821,468,7662901,517,259
West Virginia3681,425,6143711,455,871
Mississippi208878,660209879,540
Delaware65768,99865768,998
District Of Columbia4664,5724664,572
North Dakota237565,270239566,249
Alaska115564,047116564,619
Montana132423,643135430,618
Rhode Island17338,89017338,890
Vermont87337,90987337,909
Wyoming102293,373103293,720
Maine47187,15047187,150
Hawaii12107,36212107,362
Alabama892,964892,964
Kentucky472,198472,198
Michigan133,816133,816
Maryland517,473517,473
Indiana11,15011,150
Tennessee11,06811,068
South Dakota27462746
New Hampshire12501250
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Utilities with the highest amounts of dichloroacetic acid, 2015

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Hudson Gaars Mill Water SystemSikes, LA8 of 898.2 ppb660
Severy, City ofSevery, KS2 of 282.5 ppb241
Terra Bella Irrigation District - TbtTerra Bella, CA8 of 880.0 ppb2,340
Orient Water CompanyTonasket, WA4 of 476.9 ppb100
City of HuxleyShelbyville, TX8 of 876.7 ppb1,964
Jackson Township Water AuthorityJohnstown, PA4 of 469.3 ppb3,300
New Strawn, City of*New Strawn, KS1 of 169.0 ppb404
Potwin, City of*Potwin, KS1 of 167.0 ppb436
Nanty Glo Water Authority*Nanty Glo, PA4 of 466.8 ppb4,076
Vixen Water System EastWest Monroe, LA4 of 466.2 ppb486
Lakewood Water SystemLufkin, TX4 of 466.1 ppb52
Greater Johnstown Wa Saltlick*Johnstown, PA2 of 265.0 ppb164
Douglas County Rural Water District 6Lecompton, KS1 of 162.0 ppb360
Albert Gallatin Municipal AuthorityPoint Marion, PA4 of 461.0 ppb2,594
Cotton Plant Water SystemGrayson, LA2 of 460.0 ppb705
Pecan Lake Subdivision WsMonroe, LA8 of 859.6 ppb57
Philmont Boy Scout Ranch - HeadquartersCimarron, NM8 of 859.4 ppb2,150
Mountain Water Supply CorporationGatesville, TX4 of 458.7 ppb2,022
Hidden Oaks Subdivision WsMonroe, LA8 of 858.2 ppb315
West Mineral, City ofWest Mineral, KS1 of 158.0 ppb179
Vixen Water System WestWest Monroe, LA12 of 1257.4 ppb288
Carthage, Town of*Carthage, NC8 of 856.6 ppb2,767
Circle Court Mobile Park, NY2 of 355.1 ppb90
Latham, City ofLatham, KS1 of 155.0 ppb138
Oil City Water WorksOil City, LA16 of 1654.0 ppb2,115
Elk City, City of*Elk City, KS5 of 554.0 ppb314
Barnsdall*Barnsdall, OK8 of 853.5 ppb1,243
Wilson County Rural Water District 12Neodesha, KS1 of 153.0 ppb123
Butler County Rural Water District 1*El Dorado, KS1 of 152.0 ppb761
N.e. Oklahoma Correctional CenterOklahoma City, OK4 of 451.5 ppb444

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Dichloroacetic acid, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

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UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Natchitoches Water System*Natchitoches, LA56 of 5645.1 ppb30,000
Greater Johnstown Wa Riverside*Johnstown, PA4 of 440.5 ppb45,577
Orangeburg DPU*Orangeburg, SC16 of 1638.0 ppb41,257
Walnut Creek SUD*Springtown, TX16 of 1637.5 ppb18,528
North Fayette Cnty Municipal Authority*Dunbar, PA4 of 437.0 ppb36,166
City of Brenham*Brenham, TX16 of 1635.3 ppb15,716
Niles City PWS*Niles, OH16 of 1634.7 ppb20,684
Beaver Falls Municipal Authority*Beaver Falls, PA4 of 433.2 ppb50,000
Claremore*Claremore, OK16 of 1633.0 ppb15,873
Muskogee*Muskogee, OK16 of 1632.3 ppb38,310
Marshall County Water Corp*Madill, OK16 of 1632.1 ppb14,717
City of Ottawa*Ottawa, KS16 of 1631.9 ppb12,403
Ambridge Water Authority*Ambridge, PA8 of 830.6 ppb19,500
Okmulgee*Okmulgee, OK16 of 1630.6 ppb13,495
Texarkana Water Utilities*Texarkana, AR16 of 1630.4 ppb32,097
South Granville Water and Sewer AuthorityButner, NC17 of 1730.3 ppb19,219
Newport Municipal Utility District*Houston, TX8 of 829.5 ppb10,374
Westerville City PWSWesterville, OH18 of 1829.4 ppb38,000
City of La Porte*La Porte, TX16 of 1628.9 ppb34,733
Lamar County Water Supply District*Paris, TX16 of 1628.8 ppb22,269
Poplar BluffPoplar Bluff, MO16 of 1628.3 ppb17,000
East Cedar Creek FWSD BrookshireMabank, TX16 of 1628.3 ppb13,170
City of Monroe*Monroe, NC16 of 1628.3 ppb30,135
City of League City*League City, TX32 of 3228.1 ppb96,209
City of Tyler*Tyler, TX32 of 3228.0 ppb109,242
Maryville*Maryville, MO16 of 1628.0 ppb11,972
US Air Force AcademyUsaf Academy, CO4 of 428.0 ppb16,876
New Kensington Municipal Authority*New Kensington, PA4 of 427.9 ppb47,800
Shreveport Water System*Shreveport, LA64 of 6427.0 ppb201,000
Shippensburg Boro Water Authority*Shippensburg, PA15 of 1627.0 ppb14,004

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Dichloroacetic acid, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

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