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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Dichloroacetic acid

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Dichloroacetic acid, one of the group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards, is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. Haloacetic acids and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy. Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.

2015-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

47

states detected

18,572

utilities detected

194 million

people served

47

states over health guideline

18,180

utilities over health guideline

189 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for dichloroacetic acid

Cancer

Harm to reproduction and child development

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.2 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.2 ppb for dichloroacetic acid was proposed in 2020 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk.a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

ppb = parts per billion

States reporting dichloroacetic acid in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
California78429,019,28482430,207,159
Texas2,31024,008,8452,35124,448,855
New York1,13117,624,0831,13817,574,945
Illinois1,20112,054,8731,20412,063,208
Ohio9389,817,6049559,865,897
Georgia5178,541,6155288,762,992
New Jersey3718,203,9684038,450,552
North Carolina8077,463,4728097,475,958
Virginia5895,887,3835905,889,761
Massachusetts2205,199,5002265,345,445
Louisiana7994,708,7128644,835,168
Washington5024,317,5285114,664,353
Pennsylvania4664,620,2704654,619,946
Missouri6074,550,2546074,550,254
Minnesota5563,749,9585593,811,128
Wisconsin4203,529,1604833,760,042
Colorado4373,693,9394383,748,641
South Carolina3303,712,0873343,743,423
Oklahoma6203,315,6286213,318,413
Arkansas5452,847,9465532,919,716
Iowa6662,388,7216682,415,206
Nevada392,410,464392,410,464
Connecticut1622,286,5111632,300,827
Utah1392,099,3541402,099,881
Mississippi5121,868,5225151,921,490
Kansas6951,735,0307111,777,356
New Mexico1361,158,9162011,601,669
West Virginia4041,512,7944051,524,793
Nebraska771,154,386781,154,986
Hawaii17117,65720982,602
Delaware95831,63696831,946
District Of Columbia4664,5724664,572
North Dakota263647,665263647,665
New Hampshire109618,295110646,295
Alaska161596,867161596,867
Rhode Island25534,36225534,362
Montana174446,369173447,319
Vermont106356,136105355,521
Wyoming128309,271118305,706
Maine66242,94866242,948
Kentucky6167,849472,198
Maryland2870,0222870,022
Michigan133,816133,816
Alabama329,745329,745
Idaho72,62272,622
Indiana11,35011,350
South Dakota52,77331,213
Tennessee11,07511,075
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce dichloroacetic acid

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Activated Carbon

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Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of dichloroacetic acid, 2015-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Vallenar View Mobile Home ParkKetchikan, AK5 of 5120.0 ppb225
The Trails S/dChapel Hill, NC1 of 2108.0 ppb246
Hudson Gaars Mill Water SystemSikes, LA36 of 3699.3 ppb660
Red Gate Mobile Home ParkShelton, WA1 of 183.3 ppb23
City of NomeNome, TX22 of 2376.5 ppb753
Vixen Water System WestChatham, LA44 of 4471.1 ppb288
Nanty Glo Water Authority*Nanty Glo, PA4 of 466.8 ppb4,076
Greater Johnstown Wa Saltlick*Johnstown, PA2 of 265.0 ppb164
Orient Water CompanyTonasket, WA11 of 1163.9 ppb100
Lakewood Water SystemLufkin, TX12 of 1261.6 ppb42
City of HuxleyShelbyville, TX24 of 2461.2 ppb2,290
Albert Gallatin Municipal AuthorityPoint Marion, PA4 of 461.0 ppb2,594
Elk City, City ofElk City, KS13 of 1360.8 ppb314
Jackson Township Water AuthorityJohnstown, PA5 of 560.0 ppb3,300
Severy, City ofSevery, KS11 of 1159.4 ppb241
Vixen Water System EastChatham, LA32 of 3259.4 ppb486
Rye, Town ofRye, CO3 of 358.4 ppb244
Bethlehem Village DistrictBethlehem, NH8 of 858.4 ppb1,700
Beechwood Water Supply CorporationHemphill, TX16 of 1654.4 ppb1,143
Terra Bella Irrigation District - TbtTerra Bella, CA24 of 2453.8 ppb2,340
Five Lakes Water SystemBrandon, MS4 of 453.8 ppb1,602
Sandy Point 480 Water SystemCampti, LA32 of 4053.6 ppb675
Murphy Hill Ws #02Aromas, CA1 of 353.3 ppb60
Truelight Redevelopment GroupAnguilla, MS22 of 2252.6 ppb92
City of Rhome*Rhome, TX24 of 2452.3 ppb1,770
Big Tree Mobile Home ParkWilliamsville, NY2 of 251.0 ppb99
Fairview Union Water System*Campti, LA48 of 4850.4 ppb2,205
Wawayanda Wd #1Slate Hill, NY1 of 149.0 ppb850
Middletown City*Middletown, NY1 of 149.0 ppb30,850
Alden VillageAlden, NY9 of 947.9 ppb2,666
Philmont Boy Scout Ranch - HeadquartersCimarron, NM24 of 2447.9 ppb2,150
Shawnee County Rural Water District 3c*Topeka, KS8 of 847.9 ppb1,785
West Wise Special Utility District*Bridgeport, TX23 of 2347.9 ppb3,354
Ryan Utilities AuthorityRyan, OK24 of 2447.1 ppb800
Tatitlek Water SystemTatitlek, AK4 of 447.0 ppb95
Barnsdall*Barnsdall, OK22 of 2246.4 ppb1,243
Cloverhill 3 - Consecutive To Md0100015Frederick, MD2 of 246.4 ppb888
Pappas & Company (coalinga)Mendota, CA12 of 1246.2 ppb25
Stringtown Public Works AuthorityStringtown, OK23 of 2444.6 ppb1,105
Fcsa #30/el PorvenirFresno, CA11 of 1144.1 ppb130
Carthage, Town ofCarthage, NC24 of 2443.1 ppb2,767
Atoka County Rural Water, Sewer & Solid Waste Management District #4*Atoka, OK22 of 2642.1 ppb3,000
Tupper Lake VTupper Lake, NY22 of 2241.9 ppb5,500
City of Star HarborMalakoff, TX21 of 2141.9 ppb444
Osage County Rural Water District # 20 (hulah)Bartlesville, OK12 of 1241.3 ppb350
Fairchance Borough Water DepartmentFairchance, PA2 of 241.0 ppb2,174
Harvest Gold SubdivisionBloomfield, NM4 of 540.9 ppb522
Buena Vista Ws BurnetNavasota, TX11 of 1240.8 ppb366
Silverton Municipal Water SystemSilverton, TX24 of 2440.7 ppb731
Greater Johnstown Wa Riverside*Johnstown, PA4 of 440.5 ppb45,577

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Dichloroacetic acid, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Middletown City*Middletown, NY1 of 149.0 ppb30,850
Greater Johnstown Wa Riverside*Johnstown, PA4 of 440.5 ppb45,577
North Fayette Cnty Municipal Authority*Dunbar, PA4 of 437.0 ppb36,166
Orangeburg DPU*Orangeburg, SC48 of 4836.0 ppb49,906
Walnut Creek SUD*Springtown, TX48 of 4834.6 ppb23,807
City of Beeville*Beeville, TX44 of 4833.9 ppb15,039
Beaver Falls Municipal Authority*Beaver Falls, PA4 of 433.2 ppb50,000
North Monroe Et Al Water SystemWest Monroe, LA48 of 4832.6 ppb10,866
Natchitoches Water System*Natchitoches, LA120 of 12031.7 ppb30,000
Bloomfield Water DepartmentBloomfield, NJ48 of 4831.2 ppb47,315
Ambridge Water Authority*Ambridge, PA8 of 830.6 ppb19,500
Claremore*Claremore, OK52 of 5229.8 ppb15,873
Okmulgee*Okmulgee, OK48 of 4829.1 ppb13,495
Lamar County Water Supply District*Paris, TX48 of 4828.5 ppb22,269
East Cedar Creek FWSD BrookshireMabank, TX48 of 4828.2 ppb13,170
Shippensburg Boro Water AuthorityShippensburg, PA18 of 2027.9 ppb14,004
New Kensington Municipal AuthorityNew Kensington, PA4 of 427.9 ppb47,800
City of Asheboro*Asheboro, NC48 of 4826.6 ppb28,047
City of Paris*Paris, TX48 of 4826.4 ppb25,498
City of Ottawa*Ottawa, KS48 of 4826.1 ppb12,403
Appalachian State Univ WTPBoone, NC48 of 4826.1 ppb11,150
City of Brenham*Brenham, TX48 of 4826.0 ppb15,716
Lakeshore Swartz Water SystemWest Monroe, LA62 of 6425.8 ppb11,330
Muskogee*Muskogee, OK84 of 8425.8 ppb38,310
Baldwin CountyMilledgeville, GA48 of 4825.7 ppb22,279
Highland S & W Authority Beaverdam*Johnstown, PA8 of 825.6 ppb24,100
City of Port NechesPort Neches, TX47 of 4825.2 ppb13,040
Stanford UniversityStanford, CA71 of 7125.1 ppb29,635
Niles City PWS*Niles, OH48 of 4824.9 ppb20,684
City of Mabank*Mabank, TX48 of 4824.7 ppb11,349
Maryville*Maryville, MO48 of 4824.7 ppb11,972
Southwestern Pennsylvania Water Authority*Jefferson, PA4 of 424.5 ppb40,000
Town of Smithfield*Smithfield, NC48 of 4824.4 ppb11,684
City of GrovesGroves, TX52 of 5224.2 ppb15,967
City of Chesapeake-South Norfolk SystemChesapeake, VA24 of 2424.1 ppb32,602
Warren City PWS*Cortland, OH48 of 4823.8 ppb46,832
City of Wilson*Wilson, NC96 of 9623.8 ppb51,061
City of League CityLeague City, TX96 of 9623.8 ppb104,857
East Greenbush General WD*Rensselaer, NY40 of 4023.7 ppb10,200
Bolivar Peninsula SUDCrystal Beach, TX48 of 4823.7 ppb17,328
Conway RuralConway, SC34 of 3623.7 ppb10,458
City of CleburneCleburne, TX48 of 4823.5 ppb30,573
GCWSD Waccamaw NeckPawleys Island, SC52 of 5223.5 ppb34,367
City of Greenville*Greenville, TX48 of 4823.5 ppb26,800
Texarkana Water Utilities*Texarkana, AR48 of 4823.5 ppb32,097
California Water Service - Bear GulchSan Jose, CA115 of 11523.3 ppb58,432
City of Baytown*Baytown, TX96 of 9623.2 ppb72,312
City of Albemarle*Albemarle, NC48 of 4823.1 ppb16,500
Cypress Springs SUD N Plant 1 and NE PlantMount Vernon, TX23 of 2423.0 ppb10,869
South Granville Water and Sewer AuthorityButner, NC49 of 5123.0 ppb19,219

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Dichloroacetic acid, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.