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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2021 UPDATE

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Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Status: National drinking water standard exists

 

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, or DEHP, is a softener added to PVC plastics. Phthalates are hormone disruptors that target the male reproductive system. Read More.

DEHP can cross the placenta and disrupt steroid hormone synthesis, and may lead to cancer. In laboratory animals, exposure to DEHP during pregnancy harms fetal developmental and causes abnormalities in the male reproductive tract. Human epidemiological studies show certain phthalates, especially DEHP, are associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, which is a measure of adverse developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to endocrine disrupting chemicals. DEHP may also interfere with signaling related to the timing of birth and may have adverse effects on the immune system.

2017-2019:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

43

states detected

1,419

utilities detected

23 million

people served

16

states over health guideline

47

utilities over health guideline

129,000

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Harm to the male reproductive system

Harm to the immune system

Change to fetal growth and development

Hormone disruption

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 3 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 3 ppb for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 6 ppb

The legal limit for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, established in 1992, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set.

ppb = parts per billion

States reporting di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
Texas1531,1863999,018,680
Florida00531,911,178
Arizona2292641,742,507
Nevada00111,541,332
New York00671,370,177
New Jersey00261,125,887
Oklahoma11,36628972,816
Colorado0054913,065
Louisiana119677894,792
Hawaii004722,248
Iowa567,324129292,277
Pennsylvania21,05149286,625
Alabama0018261,150
Kentucky0023260,581
Delaware134546224,571
California007215,263
Connecticut29225165,052
New Mexico132518161,585
Wisconsin816,76068125,327
Arkansas0020120,553
West Virginia002590,623
Rhode Island001382,658
Minnesota001166,448
Massachusetts00462,593
North Carolina002552,774
Indiana00850,966
Utah18,500633,594
Idaho32752230,876
Oregon001130,240
Illinois00722,645
Maine00518,195
Washington21681716,911
Georgia001216,819
South Carolina00415,504
Nebraska001114,327
Vermont00613,876
Montana16501813,408
Maryland1100811,964
Ohio0055,701
New Hampshire1180113,818
South Dakota0012,067
Wyoming001470
Michigan002169
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

carbon filter icon

Activated Carbon

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 2017-2019

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Woodhaven Mobile Home ParkPflugerville, TX1 of 39.33 ppb96
Roelen Evergreen Park LlcMoscow, ID3 of 56.12 ppb65
Tylerton Waterwork CooperativeTylerton, MD1 of 15.83 ppb100
Upper Holman Mutual Domestic Water Consumers AssociationHolman, NM1 of 25.60 ppb325
Floyd Municipal Water SupplyFloyd, IA10 of 125.03 ppb335
River Valley Apts - SouthIxonia, WI1 of 14.70 ppb48
Chaparral Water AssociationEagle, ID1 of 14.68 ppb100
Claire Street Water SystemVidor, TX1 of 34.33 ppb67
Hop River HomesCromwell, CT21 of 254.28 ppb26
St. Labre Indian SchoolAshland, MT2 of 34.27 ppb650
West Gate Estates Mobile HmsMarathon, WI1 of 14.20 ppb50
Pioneer AcresMoreland, ID1 of 24.16 ppb110
Lancaster Water CompanyLancaster, CA2 of 24.15 ppb66
Malvern Water SupplyOmaha, IA1 of 14.00 ppb1,142
Lloyd-butler Mutual Water CompanyOxnard, CA1 of 14.00 ppb25
Green Lake Mobile Home ParkGreen Lake, WI7 of 93.78 ppb70
Tesi Cote GeleeBaton Rouge, LA4 of 163.69 ppb196
Mount Hope WaterworksMount Hope, WI9 of 103.68 ppb181
Johnson Creek Water Users AssociationTonasket, WA3 of 33.62 ppb48
Springsteel Island SupplyWarroad, MN4 of 63.57 ppb80
Delafield Lakes 402Delafield, WI1 of 13.50 ppb50
Long Neck VillageMillsboro, DE1 of 43.50 ppb345
Waukomis Public Works AuthorityWaukomis, OK1 of 13.35 ppb1,366
Waverly Town OfWaverly, WA1 of 23.32 ppb120
Heaven CityMukwonago, WI1 of 13.30 ppb46
Antrim Township Municipal AuthorityGreencastle, PA1 of 73.24 ppb975
Star Vale Leisure LivingStar Valley, AZ5 of 73.22 ppb200
Katherine Resorts LandingLa Mesa, AZ2 of 33.20 ppb58
Tainter Woods CondominiumsColfax, WI17 of 183.19 ppb85
Harris County Water Control and Improvement District 50 El LagoEl Lago, TX1 of 93.00 ppb2,774
Annas HouseNew Franken, WI2 of 23.00 ppb32
Richmond EstatesShawano, WI1 of 13.00 ppb150
Halcyon Acres Water Users Association 1Tucson, AZ10 of 172.97 ppb234
City of Baker Water SystemBaker, LA8 of 202.88 ppb13,855
Sun Ranch Water SystemThompsons, TX1 of 22.85 ppb111
Falls City Mobile Home Park 1Fall Creek, WI1 of 62.83 ppb100
Cade ApartmentsNew Castle, IN2 of 32.77 ppb50
Comanche County Rural Water District #2Elgin, OK1 of 22.75 ppb1,840
Coyleville Mobile CourtFenelton, PA1 of 52.72 ppb76
Livonia Water SystemLivonia, LA6 of 162.71 ppb2,445
Cardinal Valley Estates 3rd AdditionLe Claire, IA16 of 212.66 ppb25
Sandy Beach SubdivisionAustin, TX1 of 22.65 ppb402
Lake Forest Water CoopMadison, WI2 of 22.62 ppb400
Timber Creek EstatesConroe, TX1 of 22.60 ppb54
Greenleaf WaterworksGreenleaf, WI1 of 12.60 ppb650
Slatersville Public SupplySlatersville, RI2 of 22.55 ppb3,224
White Pines SouthCastleton, NY6 of 152.55 ppb25
Slope N Shore ClubNew London, NH9 of 112.55 ppb180
MaldenMalden, IL1 of 12.50 ppb348
Rio Manor Mutual Water CompanyOxnard, CA1 of 22.50 ppb900
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
City of Baker Water SystemBaker, LA8 of 202.88 ppb13,855
Central IA Water Assn (Waverly)*Newton, IA2 of 22.32 ppb34,245
Beaver Dam Water UtilityBeaver Dam, WI2 of 22.06 ppb16,200
Slidell Water SupplySlidell, LA2 of 161.58 ppb38,612
Dona Ana MDWCADona Ana, NM4 of 221.55 ppb16,217
Council Bluffs Water Works*Council Bluffs, IA1 of 31.30 ppb63,795
Berea City PWSBerea, OH1 of 31.27 ppb17,900
Brattleboro Water Department*Brattleboro, VT1 of 91.23 ppb12,200
McAlester PWA*Mcalester, OK1 of 21.21 ppb18,206
City of RialtoRialto, CA1 of 120.917 ppb48,623
Poweshiek Water Association*Tama, IA1 of 10.880 ppb18,836
City of LevellandLevelland, TX1 of 60.867 ppb14,278
Indiana American Water - West Lafayette*Greenwood, IN2 of 90.867 ppb31,748
Sussex Village Hall & Water UtilitySussex, WI5 of 70.863 ppb10,573
City of Temple*Temple, TX1 of 90.856 ppb85,884
Calcasieu Parish WW District No 1Lake Charles, LA8 of 180.784 ppb20,837
Camino Real Regional Utility AuthoritySunland Park, NM6 of 220.767 ppb17,016
Holyoke Water WorksHolyoke, MA1 of 70.751 ppb40,124
City of Universal CityUniversal City, TX3 of 110.748 ppb19,986
Del CityDel City, OK6 of 560.713 ppb22,128
City of Newport*Newport, RI50 of 1160.664 ppb42,000
Portsmouth Water & Fire DistrictPortsmouth, RI50 of 1160.664 ppb16,864
US Air Force AcademyUsaf Academy, CO7 of 450.627 ppb16,876
Fort Carson Army BaseFort Carson, CO7 of 450.627 ppb42,000
Colorado Springs Utilities*Colorado Springs, CO7 of 450.627 ppb450,461
Brookfield Water UtilityBrookfield, WI2 of 60.617 ppb29,070
City of Deer ParkDeer Park, TX2 of 140.595 ppb32,964
Geneseo Village*Geneseo, NY2 of 60.583 ppb13,350
Harris County FWSD 61*Houston, TX1 of 260.577 ppb17,586
City of HewittHewitt, TX7 of 220.575 ppb16,417
Summit Township Water AuthorityErie, PA2 of 210.531 ppb12,226
Porter SUD*Porter, TX1 of 210.524 ppb15,892
Oxnard Water Department*Oxnard, CA1 of 170.518 ppb200,855
Barbourville Water & Electric*Barbourville, KY2 of 40.500 ppb16,420
Arvin Community Services DistrictArvin, CA1 of 70.486 ppb19,000
Wellborn SUDWellborn, TX1 of 310.484 ppb25,677
Goforth SUDNiederwald, TX1 of 40.475 ppb27,639
City of AmmonAmmon, ID4 of 140.461 ppb14,019
Liberty Lake Sewer & Water DistrictLiberty Lake, WA1 of 30.457 ppb10,645
City of WaynesboroWaynesboro, VA1 of 20.450 ppb21,006
Ada*Ada, OK1 of 60.433 ppb22,600
Riverhead WD*Riverhead, NY2 of 20.425 ppb35,000
Utilities Inc. - North Park Water SupplyMandeville, LA10 of 260.416 ppb11,298
Miramar (East & West) PlantsMiramar, FL3 of 180.407 ppb127,700
City of CorinthCorinth, TX3 of 220.391 ppb23,568
City of CelinaCelina, TX3 of 220.391 ppb18,860
Denton County FWSD 7 LantanaHouston, TX3 of 220.391 ppb11,169
City of Alvin*Alvin, TX1 of 80.388 ppb24,000
SCLIWC*Ithaca, NY2 of 50.384 ppb23,395
City of Cumberland*Cumberland, MD1 of 120.382 ppb27,039

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.