Bush Rollback Will Hide Data on 600,000 Pounds of Toxic Chemicals in California
Bush Rollback Will Hide Data on 600,000 Pounds of Toxic Chemicals in California
The Bush Administration has adopted regulations that will dramatically roll back Americans' right to know about chemical hazards in their neighborhoods, allowing California industries to handle almost 600,000 pounds of toxic chemicals a year without telling the public, according to an investigation of federal data by Environmental Working Group (EWG).
For more than 20 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program has required industrial facilities to report the release, disposal, incineration, treatment or recycling of 650 chemicals covered by the law. Comprehensive TRI reporting has been required for facilities that handle at least 10,000 pounds a year or manufacture 25,000 pounds per year, and discharge or dispose of at least 500 pounds per year of the listed chemical.
But just before Christmas, the EPA gutted the TRI by sharply raising the detailed reporting threshold so that only releases of at least 2,000 pounds of chemicals will be subjected to detailed reporting. Facilities that don't meet the threshold must only indicate that they use a chemical. The agency adopted the rollback over the objections of more than 122,000 American citizens, corporations, government agencies and others who wrote in to protest the change. [OMB Watch 2006]
EWG's investigation of TRI data from 2004 found that the proposed EPA rollback deals a crippling blow to Californians' access to information about toxic chemicals in their communities:
- The rollback will allow 274 industrial facilities in 30 counties to stop detailed reporting on the use or release of 595,422 pounds of hazardous chemicals a year. In Los Angeles County alone, 247,097 pounds of chemicals a year from 107 facilities will no longer be subject to reporting. In Alameda and Contra Costa counties combined, almost 66,000 pounds from 29 facilities will no longer be reported. In Orange County, more than 58,000 pounds from 27 facilities will no longer be reported.
EPA Will End Detailed Reporting of nearly 600,000 Lbs. of Waste a Year in California
|County||Facilities reporting releases between 500 and 2000 pounds and waste management activities up 5000 pounds in 2004|
|Number of facilities||Emissions
|Los Angeles County||107||123,991||247,097|
|Contra Costa County||15||24,365||34,021|
|San Bernardino County||19||19,341||34,542|
|San Diego County||16||18,768||39,496|
- The rollback will allow 52 California facilities to stop reporting any details of their use or release of toxic chemicals. These facilities will be allowed to handle 69,426 pounds of toxic chemicals a year without detailed public disclosure.
52 Facilities Will Be Exempt From Detailed Waste Reporting
|Facility||Facilities reporting releases between 500 and 2000 pounds and waste management activities up 5000 pounds in 2004|
|Number of chemicals||Emissions
|Coatings Resource Corp., Huntington Beach||3||3,103||3,103|
|Westway Feed Products Co, Stockton||1||1,850||1,850|
|Distinctive Appliances Inc Aka Dacor, City Of Industry||1||1,728||2,592|
|Solvay Draka Inc., Commerce||1||1,705||1,710|
|Bardon Enterprises Inc, Santee||2||1,579||1,579|
|Century Plastics Inc, Compton||1||1,473||1,473|
|Prc-desoto International Inc., Glendale||1||1,450||1,450|
|Gillig Corp, Hayward||2||1,381||3,264|
|American Polystyrene Corp, Torrance||1||1,371||1,371|
|P.f.i. Inc., Santa Fe Springs||1||1,369||1,629|
- Chemicals for which reporting will be slashed or curtailed are among the most hazardous to human health. The rollback will end annual reporting in California of more than 41,000 pounds of ethylbenzene, 10,000 pounds of styrene, 12,000 pounds of benzene and almost 16,000 pounds of chromium and chromium compounds - all known or suspected carcinogens. It will also eliminate annual reporting for more than 6,200 pounds of chemicals that meet the EPA's criteria for persistent bioaccumulative toxics, or PBTs - chemicals that present the greatest threats to human health and the environment. [EWG 2006].
- Although the proposed rollback will reduce the total amount of chemicals used in California that must be reported to the TRI by less than 1 percent, reporting for many individual chemicals will drop sharply. All reporting will end for five different chemicals and reporting will drop by 10 percent or more for 69 chemicals.
The TRI is the nation's premiere pollution reporting and citizens' right-to-know program. It is widely recognized as the least controversial environmental program in the country and has been praised by industry and environmentalists as an effective way to increase chemical use efficiency and reduce waste and pollution. The TRI is the only source of chemical-specific information on industrial pollution at the individual facility level. It is an essential source of information for state and local governments and community activists nationwide.
Established in 1986, the TRI imposes no mandatory pollution controls on industry, but instead requires the reporting of estimated levels of release and disposal for 650 chemical compounds (less than one percent of chemicals registered for use in the U.S.) by some 23,000 facilities. This simple act of public disclosure is widely credited with spurring voluntary pollution reductions, with total U.S. chemical releases dropping 65 percent since 1989. [Hogue 2005]. In 2006, after the EPA first proposed rolling back the TRI, a report by a dozen state attorneys general, including Bill Lockyer of California, cited striking reductions achieved by industry since the program began: Boeing Company cut its toxic chemical releases by over 82 percent; Monsanto cut its toxic air emissions by over 90 percent; and the Eastman Chemical Co. cut its releases of TRI chemicals by 83 percent. [Spitzer 2006.]
In January 2006, the attorneys general wrote to the EPA to protest the planned rollback, saying: "The proposed changes to the rule are not consistent with the purpose of TRI - to provide a maximum amount of information regarding toxic chemical use and releases to Americans - but directly contrary to the statutory purpose." The AGs said the proposed changes "violate the old saying: 'If it ain't broke, don't fix it.' " They said:
The changes would significantly reduce the amount of information about releases of toxic chemicals available to the public and as a result would impair efforts by federal, state and local governments, workers, firefighters and citizens to protect Americans and their environment from the harm caused by discharges of toxic chemicals to the air, water and land. In addition to being contrary to the public interest and sound policy, the proposed changes would violate the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, the Pollution Prevention Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act. [Spitzer 2006.]
About the TRI
In December 1984, thousands of people died following the release of methyl isocyanate, a chemical used to make pesticides, at a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India. This tragedy was followed by the disclosure one month later that the same chemical had leaked at least 28 times from a similar Union Carbide facility in Institute, W.V. Eight months later, 3,800 pounds of leaked chemicals from the same Institute plant sent dozens of injured people to local hospitals [NYT 1985a, NAP 1989a].
Following the tragedy in India and the realization that a similar disaster was possible in the United States, Congress passed the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) in 1986 as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This legislation requires manufacturing facilities handling toxic chemicals to have emergency plans and coordinators in place in case accidents occur. Additionally, it requires facilities to inform communities and local authorities about the hazardous chemicals handled. Finally, the Act requires facilities to publicly report their chemical waste and emissions, a provision under Section 313 of the Act known as the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) [EPA 2004a, EPRCA].
The TRI has become the nation's premiere right-to-know law. It is one of the most widely praised and successful environmental programs for industry, environmentalists, and the public. Each year, companies across a wide range of industries (including chemical, mining, paper, oil and gas industries) that produce more than 25,000 pounds or handle more than 10,000 pounds of a listed toxic chemical must report it to the TRI. When the TRI first when into effect, the threshold was 75,000 pounds annually. Until the recent rollback by the EPA, if the company treated, recycled, disposed, or released more than 500 pounds of that chemical into the environment (as opposed to just handling it), they had to provide a detailed record of its use and environmental fate.
In 1990 the TRI was expanded with passage of the Pollution Prevention Act to include data on chemical quantities and practices involved in source reduction and recycling. In 1993 President Clinton issued an Executive Order in response to an evaluation of TRI by the General Accounting Office, which further expanded the program to require reporting from federal facilities [EPA 2002c]. EPA then reduced certain reporting requirements in 1994 when it established a system of different forms to be submitted for different levels of chemical releases [EPA 1994a]. Larger releases now require more detailed reporting, while smaller releases require more basic reporting.
In 1997 TRI was again expanded when EPA mandated more complete data on emissions from incinerators, and required TRI emissions reporting from additional industries not previously included: metal and coal mining, commercial electric utilities that use coal or oil, commercial hazardous waste treatment facilities, petroleum bulk terminals and plants, chemical and allied product wholesalers, and solvent recovery services [EPA 1997a].
The TRI imposes no pollution controls on industry, but instead requires facilities to report estimated levels of pollution and disposal for a list of 650 chemical compounds - less than one percent of chemicals registered for use in the U.S. This simple act of public disclosure has been undeniably beneficial for industry, the public, and the environment by:
- Producing broad reductions in emissions for scores of major air and water pollutants;
- Generating more efficient use of chemicals by industry;
- Helping to identify and prioritize chemicals of potential concern;
- Measuring progress toward chemical management goals;
- Delivering important information on pollution to communities near industrial facilities.
With annual emissions reporting from over 23,000 industrial and federal facilities, the TRI is credited with dropping the total releases of chemicals from all sources by 65 percent since 1989 [Hogue 2005]. It has also provided a foundation of solid facts to inform and drive policy advances, planning and citizen action at the national, state, and local levels.
In a 2003 report, the EPA listed two dozen state governments that rely on the TRI program for emergency planning, environmental targeting, risk assessments, standards, legislation, and quality assurance and control [EPA 2003a]. The state attorneys' general report said the TRI is also essential information for firefighters and local governments, for scientists, labor unions, investment advisors, even the Internal Revenue Service.
But nowhere has the TRI been more important than in the fight for environmental justice by grassroots communities - especially "fenceline" neighborhoods adjacent to chemical facilities. In the words of the attorneys general: "TRI data is the tool that proves the need for environmental justice at the national and local level." [Spitzer 2006]. Throughout California, TRI data has been a key tool that has empowered diverse communities to take action against toxic chemical hazards:
- In Los Angeles, Communities for a Better Environment (CBE) used TRI data to show that more than 80 percent of facilities that release toxic chemicals in L.A. County were located in areas where a large majority of residents were people of color. Among the results: Three industrial recycling facilities relocated to more appropriately zoned areas, and the South Coast Air Quality Management District adopted environmental justice guidelines to ensure that diverse community voices are included in planning and regulatory decisions. [NIEHS 2005]
- In Richmond, the West County Toxics Coalition and CBE used the TRI to investigate refineries and other industrial polluters. The group published a report identifying the area's 20 largest polluters, naming a Chevron refinery as the worst. The report brought the oil company to the table for discussions that led to Chevron's agreement to close down older portions of the plant and install equipment to achieve zero emissions from an expansion. [EPA 1998]
- In the Ventura County community of Frasier Park, Concerned Residents of Lockwood Valley fought to get Pacific Custom Materials, a clay mine and cement kiln, report its emissions from burning diesel fuel to the TRI. They then used the data to force state and county regulators to crack down on the plant’s nitrogen and sulfur pollution, to institute real-time online emissions reporting, and bring a health damages lawsuit against the company, recently settled for an undisclosed amount. [Swan 2006]
- In West Oakland, the Chester Street Block Club Association, Citizens for West Oakland Revitalization and Greenaction used TRI data in a campaign against Red Star Yeast, whose plant was emitting tens of thousands of pounds of acetaldehyde, a carcinogen, and other toxic chemicals into the neighborhood's air. The community pressured authorities to investigate and fine Red Star for pollution violations and fought against renewal of the plant's operating permit, prompting the company to shut down the facility. [DeFao 2003]
Not surprisingly, the TRI is popular with the public, as demonstrated by public responses to government proposals to roll back the program in the past. The TRI's popularity is consistent with findings from public opinion polls showing that the public considers access to pollution information to be a basic right [Mellman 1999a].
The EPA Rollback
On September 21, 2005, the EPA announced its intention to roll back reporting requirements for all chemicals under the Toxics Release Inventory [EPA 2005a]. The rationale for this proposal was to reduce the reporting burden on industry, although it is notable that outside of EPA, there was no perceptible demand for the reporting changes that were proposed, nor were any presented along with the proposal. The EPA proposal had two major components: (1) Increase the amount of chemical releases that trigger detailed TRI reporting from 500 to 5,000 pounds per year. (2) Eliminate annual reporting and replace it with reporting every other year.
The EPA offered no rationale for the proposal other than its desire to ease the regulatory burden on business. But some prominent industries joined in the widespread outcry against the proposal, saying the TRI helped them reduce the use of toxic chemicals and keep track of chemicals they used, and few spoke out in support. In the end, EPA received 122,386 written comments on the proposal. A December 2006 report by OMB Watch broke down the numbers:
- 121,691 comments from private citizens opposing any change in the TRI.
- 442 comments in opposition from environmental, health, labor, faith and other public interest groups.
- 199 comments in opposition from government agencies and elected officials at the federal, state and local levels.
- A total of 34 comments supporting the changes, mostly from affected industries.
In addition, EPA received other strong criticism and resistance to the changes to TRI reporting:
- The House of Representatives passed a bipartisan appropriations rider preventing EPA from implementing the rule changes.
- Sens. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Robert Menendez (D-NJ) placed a hold on a Bush administration nominee to protest the proposals.
- EPA's Science Advisory Board formally opposed the proposals.
- The Environmental Council of States, an association of state governmental environmental agencies, passed a resolution urging EPA to withdraw the proposals.
The overwhelming response did prompt EPA to modify its proposal. When the final rule was published in December 2006, the proposal for alternate-year reporting was gone, and the threshhold for reporting chemical use was raised not to 5,000 pounds, but 2,000 pounds. However, raising the threshhold by a factor of four rather than a factor of 10 still will eliminate reporting of millions of pounds of toxics chemicals nationwide.
In February 2007, the U.S. Government Accountability Office issued a report analyzing the effect of the rollback. The report found that "TRI reporting changes will likely have a significant impact on information available to the public about dozens of toxic chemicals from thousands of facilities in states and communities across the country. " Impacts included:
"Detailed information from more than 22,000 [facilities] could no longer be reported . . . .affecting more than 33 percent of reports in California, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. Second, we estimate that states could lose all quantitative information about releases of some chemicals, ranging from 3 in South Dakota to 60 in Georgia. Third, we estimate that 3,565 facilities . . . would no longer have to report any quantitative information to the TRI. " [GAO 2007]
Chemicals of Concern
The chemicals for which reporting will be slashed or curtailed by the EPA's rollback are among the most hazardous to human health
Benzene. The rollback will end detailed reporting in California of release of more than 84,000 pounds of benzene, ethylbenzene and 1,2,4 trimethylbenzene from 41 facilities. Benzene is widely used to make other chemicals such as Styrofoam, dyes, detergents, drugs, pesticides, and chemicals used in nylon and other synthetic fibers. It is also found in crude oil, gasoline and cigarette smoke. Benzene is a known human carcinogen, causing leukemia and possibly non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Benzene has also been linked with non-cancer health conditions such as anemia, central nervous system depression, and other nervous system effects. [ATSDR 2005] (More about benzene)
Toluene. The EPA proposal will eliminate reporting of release of 30,000 pounds of toluene and toluene compounds from 28 facilities in California. Toluene is used to produce benzene and as a solvent in paints and coatings, adhesives, inks, cosmetics, cleaning solutions, and organic reactions. Long term exposure to toluene-contaminated drinking water may cause serious nervous system disorders, including spasms, tremors, speech impairment, and memory, hearing, vision and coordination loss; it may also cause liver and kidney damage [USEPA 2002a]. Chronic exposure to toluene may also cause skeletal muscle disease, and studies in laboratory animals show that toluene can alter reproductive hormone levels and cause decreased sperm counts. [ATSDR 2005] (More about toluene)
Chromium and chromium compounds. The rollback will end reporting of more than 16,000 pounds of chromium and chromium compounds, from 15 California facilities. An unknown amount of this is the highly toxic chromium-6, a known human carcinogen. Chromium-6 exposure has also been linked to lung cancer, chromosome aberrations and damage to the pharynx, larynx, kidney, heart and liver. Chromium-6 contaminated drinking water in Hinkley, Calif., was the basis of the movie "Erin Brockovich." In real life, a lawsuit by Hinkley residents against Pacific Gas & Electric Co. resulted in the largest legal settlement in U.S. history, $333 million. [ATSDR 2005] (More about chromium. More about chromium compounds)
The most hazardous chemicals in the TRI, including DDT, PCBs, dioxins and lead, are persistent bioaccumulative toxic chemicals (PBTs), which are defined as compounds that "possess toxic properties, resist degradation, [and] bioaccumulate." [Stockholm 2004] Different national and international treaties define specific properties in different ways, but for the Toxics Release Inventory, the EPA uses the following criteria [EPA 1999a]:
Possesses a degradation half-life (the time it takes for half of the chemical to break down in water, soil, or river sediments) of two months or greater. This rate of degradation means that the chemical will persist for at least one year in the environment. Airborne chemicals must possess a degradation half-life of 2 days or more, meaning that they last in the air for about 12 days. Bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms either through exposure to the chemical in the environment (bioconcentration) or through uptake in food (bioaccumulation). The EPA has created a number of tests to measure bioaccumulation. If these tests show that a chemical accumulates at levels 1000 or greater times in an organism's tissues compared to environment or food levels, the chemical is considered to bioaccumulate. Is reasonably anticipated to cause serious or irreversible chronic human health effects at relatively low doses or ecotoxicity at relatively low concentrations.
PBTs are so hazardous that they are the only group of chemicals to be banned on a global scale by international treaty. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants which came into force in May 2004, bans or severely restricts the 12 most harmful. Under the PBT provisions, any facility that handles 100 pounds of a persistent and bioaccumulative chemical or just 10 pounds of a very persistent and very bioaccumulative chemical - a chemical that meets international guidelines for banning - is subject to full reporting of pollution and disposal. Dioxins are so toxic that companies handling more than 0.1 gram are subject to fully reporting (nationwide, only about 285 pounds are disposed of or emitted annually).
The stricter PBT reporting requirements are, for the most part, not included in EPA's proposed rollback. But EWG has identified five chemicals already covered by the TRI that meet the EPA's own criteria for classification as PBTs, yet have not been made subject to the more stringent reporting rules. [EWG 2006] One of these chemicals are among those for which all detailed reporting will be curtailed in California, because all of the facilities that reported releases in 2004 were under the 2,000-pound threshold.
DEHP. The rollback will end all reporting in California of releases of 6,233 pounds of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, from five facilities. In laboratory animals, fetal exposure to DEHP causes significant developmental toxicity, especially of the male reproductive tract. In adult animals, DEHP causes toxicity to the reproductive organs, adrenal, liver, and kidney. In humans, exposures to DEHP in polyvinyl chloride plastic used in medical applications are of concern, especially for infants and toddlers [Kavlock 2002]. DEHP was found in the blood of more than 95 percent of 2,800 people tested by the Centers for Disease Control in 2001 and 2002 [CDC 2005]. (More about DEHP)
About this report
Authors: Kristan Markey and Bill Walker
Editor: Bill Walker
Databases: Chris Campbell
Web Design and Graphics: T.C. Greenleaf and Carrie Gouldin
Thanks to Environment California, Communities for a Better Environment, Greenaction and Sylvia Swan of Concerned Citizens of Lockwood Valley for their help.
This report was made possible by a grant from The California Wellness Foundation. The authors are responsible for all errors.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2000. Toxicological Profile for Toluene. CAS# 108-88-3.
Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section, O. o. E. H. H. A., California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). 1999. Public Health Goal for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in Drinking Water.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2005. Third national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/3rd/.
DeFao 2003. Yeast plant in Oakland will close; Neighbors have complained about smell, chemical releases. Janine DeFao, San Francisco Chronicle. April 2, 2003.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994. "Alternate Threshold for Facilities With Low Annual Reportable Amounts; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-To-Know; Final Rule," Federal Register, November 30, 1994, vol 59, pg 61488;. Access on January 9, 2006 at: http://www.epa.gov/docs/fedrgstr/EPA-TRI/1994/November/Day-30/pr-3.html
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. "Addition of Facilities in Certain Industry Sectors; Revised Interpretation of Otherwise Use; Toxic Release Inventory Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Final Rule," Federal Register, May 1, 1997, vol 62, pg 23834. Accessed on January 9, 2006 at: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-TRI/1997/May/Day-01/tri11154.pdf
EPA 1998. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9: Cross-Media Division, A Citizen's Guide to Reducing Toxic Risks: Putting the Toxics Release Inventory to Work! (EPA # 909-B-98-001, Washington DC, 1998).
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999a. "Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) Chemicals; Lowering of Reporting Thresholds for Certain PBT Chemicals; Addition of Certain PBT Chemicals; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Reporting", Federal Register, October 29, 1999, vol 64, 209, 58665-58753
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2002c. "President Clinton's Executive Order on Reducing Toxic Emissions from Federal Facilities," EPA Press Release, August 4, 1993. Accessed on January 8, 2006 at: http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/programs/02.htm
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003. How Are the Toxics Release Inventory Data Used? (EPA-260-R-002-004). May 2003. http://www.epa.gov/tri/guide_docs/2003_datausepaper.pdf
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003a "How Are the Toxics Release Inventory Data Used? Government, business, academic and citizen uses," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003. Accessed on January 12, 2006 at: http://www.epa.gov/tri/guide_docs/2003_datausepaper.pdf
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2002a. Technical Factsheet on: Toluene. Last updated November 26, 2002. Accessed on February 28th, 2006 at: http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/dwh/t-voc/toluene.html
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004a. "What is the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program". Last updated 14 June 2004, accessed on-line on January 10, 2006 at: http://www.epa.gov/tri/whatis.htm
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005a. "Toxics Release Inventory 2006 Burden Reduction", Federal Register, October 4, 205, vol 70, 191, 57871-57872.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Last Updated on February 21st, 2006. Consumer Factsheet on: 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene.
EPCRA. "Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act," Title 42, United States Code, Sec. 11001-11050.
EWG 2006. Stolen Inventory: EPA's Plan Would Allow Industry to Pollute Communities with Dangerous Persistent Chemicals without Notifying the Public. Environmental Working Group. Jan. 13, 2006. https://www.ewg.org/reports/cheminventory
Foster, W. G. 1995. The reproductive toxicology of Great Lakes contaminants. Environ Health Perspect 103 Suppl 9:63-9.
Hogue, C. 2005. "A Smaller Right-To-Know?", Chemical and Engineering News, 83, 44, (2005), pg 22-25
Kavlock R, Boekelheide K, Chapin R, Cunningham M, Faustman E, Foster P, Golub M, Henderson R, Hinberg I, Little R, Seed J, Shea K, Tabacova S, Tyl R, Williams P, Zacharewski T. 2002. NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Reproductive Toxicology. 16(5):529-653.
Mellman Group, Inc. and Public Opinion Strategies, Inc. 1999 "Public Opinion Research on Public Health, Environmental Health, and the Country's Public Health Capacity to Adequately Address Environmental Health Problems," conducted for the Pew Charitable Trusts.
National Research Council. 1989. Committee on Risk Perception and Communication, "Improving Risk Communication: Working Papers," National Academy Press, Washington DC. Access on January 10, 2006 at: http://www.nap.edu/books/POD289/html/index.html
NIEHS 2005. "Environmental Justice: Project Descriptions." National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Extramural Research and Training. April 12, 2005. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/translat/envjust/projects/porras.htm.
Shabecoff, P. 1985. " E.P.A. says Union Carbide plant in U.S. had 28 leaks in 5 years," New York Times, January 24, 1985, page 1.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. 2004. Available at http://www.pops.int.
Swan 2006. Personal communication from Sylvia Swan of Tri-County Watchdogs, Frasier Park, CA. February 2006.
Spitzer 2006. Comments of New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer, et al, on the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Proposed Rule, 70 Fed. Reg. 57822 (Oct. 4, 2005) and the Toxics Release Inventory 2006 Burden Reduction, 70 Fed. Reg. 57871 (Oct. 4, 2005). January 12, 2006.