Pesticide in Soap, Toothpaste and Breast Milk - Is It Kid-Safe?

Summary & Recommendations

July 17, 2008

Pesticide in Soap, Toothpaste and Breast Milk - Is It Kid-Safe?: References

Aeris Technologies. 2007. AerisGuard Bioactive Coil Treatment: for treatment of air conditioning heat exchange coils. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Adolfsson-Erici M, Peterson M, Parkkonen J, Sturve J. 2002. Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden. Chemosphere 46(9-10): 1485-1489.

Ahn KC, Zhao B, Chen J, Cherednichenko G, Sanmarti E, Denison MS, et al. 2008. In vitro biological activities of the anitmicrobials triclocarban, its analogues, and triclosan in bioassay screens: Receptor-based bioassay screens. Environmental health perspectives in press.

Allmyr M, Adolfsson-Erici M, McLachlan MS, Sandborgh-Englund G. 2006. Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products. The Science of the total environment 372(1): 87-93.

Allmyr M, McLachlan MS, Sandborgh-Englund G, Adolfsson-Erici M. 2006. Determination of triclosan as its pentafluorobenzoyl ester in human plasma and milk using electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry 78(18): 6542-6546.

Balmer ME, Poiger T, Droz C, Romanin K, Bergqvist PA, Muller MD, et al. 2004. Occurrence of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan, in fish from various lakes in Switzerland. Environmental science & technology 38(2): 390-395.

Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Reidy JA, Needham LL. 2008. Urinary concentrations of triclosan in the U.S. population: 2003-2004. Environmental health perspectives 116(3): 303-307.

Canosa P, Rodriguez I, Rubi E, Cela R. 2007. Determination of parabens and triclosan in indoor dust using matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry 79(4): 1675-1681.

Canosa P, Rodriguez I, Rubi E, Ramil M, Cela R. 2008. Simplified sample preparation method for triclosan and methyltriclosan determination in biota and foodstuff samples. Journal of chromatography 1188(2): 132-139.

Chuanchuen R, Beinlich K, Hoang TT, Becher A, Karkhoff-Schweizer RR, Schweizer HP. 2001. Cross-resistance between triclosan and antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by multidrug efflux pumps: exposure of a susceptible mutant strain to triclosan selects nfxB mutants overexpressing MexCD-OprJ. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 45(2): 428-432.

Ciba. 2006. Irgaguard B1000: broad-spectrum bacteriostat for use in the manufacture of polymer/plastic and textile products. EPA Reg. 70404-5. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Ciniglia C, Cascone C, Giudice RL, Pinto G, Pollio A. 2005. Application of methods for assessing the geno- and cytotoxicity of Triclosan to C. ehrenbergii. Journal of hazardous materials 122(3): 227-232.

Dayan AD. 2007. Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan] in human breast milk. Food Chem Toxicol 45(1): 125-129.

Deliaert AE, Van den Kerckhove E, Tuinder S, Fieuws S, Sawor JH, Meesters-Caberg MA, et al. 2008. The effect of triclosan-coated sutures in wound healing. A double blind randomised prospective pilot study. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg.

Dokianakis SN, Kornaros ME, Lyberatos G. 2004. On the effect of pharmaceuticals on bacterial nitrite oxidation. Water Sci Technol 50(5): 341-346.

Dussault EB, Balakrishnan VK, Sverko E, Solomon KR, Sibley PK. 2008. Toxicity of human pharmaceuticals and personal care products to benthic invertebrates. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC 27(2): 425-432.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. Non-confidential Inventory Update Reporting Production Volume Information. Available: [accessed July 15 2008].

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides. EPA 735-F-03-006. Available: [accessed July 15 2008].

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008a. 5-Chloro-2-(2,4-

dichlorophenoxy)phenol (Triclosan): Risk Assessment for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document. Case No 2340. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0513: Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, April 17, 2008. Available at:

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008b. Preliminary risk assessment for pesticide uses of triclosan. Accessed July 11, 2008 at

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008c. Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Potential of Triclosan. Document EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0513-0012. Cancer Assessment Review Committee, Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. Available at:

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008d. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS). Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008e. What are antimicrobial pesticides? Accessed July 11, 2008 at

EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2005. Body Burden — The Pollution in Newborns. Available at:

EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2008. Skin Deep: Cosmetics Safety Database. Available at:

EWG/EBMUD (Environmental Working Group & East Bay Municipal Utility District). 2007. Down the Drain: Sources of hormone-disrupting chemicals in San Francisco Bay.

Farre M, Asperger D, Kantiani L, Gonzalez S, Petrovic M, Barcelo D. 2008. Assessment of the acute toxicity of triclosan and methyl triclosan in wastewater based on the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 390(8): 1999-2007.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2005. Non-Prescription Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting, October 20, 2005. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 1-386.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2006. Genetic Toxicity, Reproductive and Development Toxicity, and Carcinogenicity Database. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 1997. FDA approves first toothpaste for gum disease. FDA talk paper. July 14, 1997. Accessed July 11 2008 at

Federle TW, Kaiser SK, Nuck BA. 2002. Fate and effects of triclosan in activated sludge. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC 21(7): 1330-1337.

Fiss EM, Rule KL, Vikesland PJ. 2007. Formation of chloroform and other chlorinated byproducts by chlorination of triclosan-containing antibacterial products. Environmental science & technology 41(7): 2387-2394.

Foran CM, Bennett ER, Benson WH. 2000. Developmental evaluation of a potential non-steroidal estrogen: triclosan. Marine environmental research 50(1-5): 153-156.

Gee RH, Charles A, Taylor N, Darbre PD. 2008. Oestrogenic and androgenic activity of triclosan in breast cancer cells. J Appl Toxicol 28(1): 78-91.

Heath RJ, Li J, Roland GE, Rock CO. 2000. Inhibition of the Staphylococcus aureus NADPH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by triclosan and hexachlorophene. The Journal of biological chemistry 275(7): 4654-4659.

Huntsman International. 2007. Invasan DP300R: broad spectrum antimicrobial agent for use in the manufacture of polymer/plastic and textiles. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Ishibashi H, Matsumura N, Hirano M, Matsuoka M, Shiratsuchi H, Ishibashi Y, et al. 2004. Effects of triclosan on the early life stages and reproduction of medaka Oryzias latipes and induction of hepatic vitellogenin. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 67(2): 167-179.

Keshava N, Caldwell JC. 2006. Key issues in the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonism and cell signaling in trichloroethylene toxicity. Environmental health perspectives 114(9): 1464-1470.

Kinney CA, Furlong ET, Kolpin DW, Burkhardt MR, Zaugg SD, Werner SL, et al. 2008. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure. Environmental science & technology 42(6): 1863-1870.

Klaunig JE, Babich MA, Baetcke KP, Cook JC, Corton JC, David RM, et al. 2003. PPARalpha agonist-induced rodent tumors: modes of action and human relevance. Critical reviews in toxicology 33(6): 655-780.

Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, et al. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: a national reconnaissance. Environmental science & technology 36(6): 1202-1211.

Levy SB. 2001. Antibacterial household products: cause for concern. Emerging infectious diseases 7(3 Suppl): 512-515.

Lindstrom A, Buerge IJ, Poiger T, Bergqvist PA, Muller MD, Buser HR. 2002. Occurrence and environmental behavior of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl derivative in surface waters and in wastewater. Environmental science & technology 36(11): 2322-2329.

Lores M, Llompart M, Sanchez-Prado L, Garcia-Jares C, Cela R. 2005. Confirmation of the formation of dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the photodegradation of triclosan by photo-SPME. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 381(6): 1294-1298.

Matsumura N, Ishibashi H, Hirano M, Nagao Y, Watanabe N, Shiratsuchi H, et al. 2005. Effects of nonylphenol and triclosan on production of plasma vitellogenin and testosterone in male South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 28(9): 1748-1751.

McAvoy DC, Schatowitz B, Jacob M, Hauk A, Eckhoff WS. 2002. Measurement of triclosan in wastewater treatment systems. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC 21(7): 1323-1329.

McMurry LM, Oethinger M, Levy SB. 1998. Overexpression of marA, soxS, or acrAB produces resistance to triclosan in laboratory and clinical strains of Escherichia coli. FEMS microbiology letters 166(2): 305-309.

Microban Products Company. 1997. Microban Additive "B" for air filtration EPA Reg. No. 42182-1. For the protection of the air filter or the air filtration media against odor-causing bacteria and for bacteriostatic/fungistatic activity in the presence of moisture. Available: [accessed May 22 2008].

Microban Products Company. 2000. Microban Additive "B": a baceriostatic and fungistatic additive for use in the manufacture and preservation of commodity products. Active ingredient: 5-chloro-2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol 99%. Available: [accessed May 28 2008].

Miller TR, Heidler J, Chillrud SN, DeLaquil A, Ritchie JC, Mihalic JN, et al. 2008. Fate of triclosan and evidence for reductive dechlorination of triclocarban in estuarine sediments. Environmental science & technology 42(12): 4570-4576.

Moretro T, Sonerud T, Mangelrod E, Langsrud S. 2006. Evaluation of the antibacterial effect of a triclosan-containing floor used in the food industry. Journal of food protection 69(3): 627-633.

NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 2008. Mouse Liver Tumors: benefits and constraints on use in human health risk assessment, qualitative and quantitative aspects: National Academy of Sciences.

NPIRS. 2008. National Pesticide Information Retrieval System Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Neumegen RA, Fernandez-Alba AR, Chisti Y. 2005. Toxicities of triclosan, phenol, and copper sulfate in activated sludge. Environmental toxicology 20(2): 160-164.

Orvos DR, Versteeg DJ, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V. 2002. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC 21(7): 1338-1349.

Perencevich EN, Wong MT, Harris AD. 2001. National and regional assessment of the antibacterial soap market: a step toward determining the impact of prevalent antibacterial soaps. American journal of infection control 29(5): 281-283.

Peters JM, Cheung C, Gonzalez FJ. 2005. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and liver cancer: where do we stand? Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 83(10): 774-785.

Remberger M, Sternbeck J, Strömberg K. 2002. Screening av triclosan och vissa bromerade fenoliske ämnen i Sverige [Screening of triclosan and some brominated phenolic substances in Sweden]: IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB. In Swedish. Cited in Samsoe-Petersen et al. 2003.

Samsoe-Petersen L, Winther-Nielsen M, Madsen T. 2003. Fate and Effects of Triclosan. Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

Sanitized Inc. 1998. Sanitized Brand PLA: a bacteriostatic treatment that controls odors on and deterioration and discoloration of for plastics, polymers, fibers & fabric caused by microbial growht in the presence of moisture. For industrial use only. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Sanitized Inc. 2003. Sanitized Brand PL 91-36. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

See NA. 1996. Review and Evaluation of Pharmacology and Toxicology Data Division of Dermatologic and Dental Drug Products (HFD-540) Food and Drug Administration. As cited by EPA 2008b.

Singer H, Müller S, Tixier C, Pillonel L. Triclosan: occurrence and fate of a widely used biocide in the aquatic environment: field measurements in wastewater treatment plants, surface waters, and lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Dec 1;36(23):4998-5004.

Stasinakis AS, Mamais D, Thomaidis NS, Danika E, Gatidou G, Lekkas TD. 2008. Inhibitory effect of triclosan and nonylphenol on respiration rates and ammonia removal in activated sludge systems. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 70(2): 199-206.

Stasinakis AS, Petalas AV, Mamais D, Thomaidis NS, Gatidou G, Lekkas TD. 2007. Investigation of triclosan fate and toxicity in continuous-flow activated sludge systems. Chemosphere 68(2): 375-381.

Tan L, Nielsen NH, Young DC, Trizna Z. 2002. Use of antimicrobial agents in consumer products. Archives of dermatology 138(8): 1082-1086.

Thomson Research Associates. 2007. Ultra-Fresh FT-7: bacteriostat & fungistat. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

TNO. 2005. Man-made chemicals in maternal and cord blood TNO-B&O-A R 2005/129. Apeldoorn, The Netherlands: TNO Built Environment and Geosciences.

Tri-TAC. 2008. Letter to EPA regarding Triclosan Re-registration Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0513, from Jim Colston, Chair of Tri-TAC. July 7, 2008.

Troy Chemical Corporation. 2006. Microbanish R plastic additive: a preservative, fungicide, biostatic agent for use in the manufacture of polymer, plastic, and latex products. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Trutter JA. 1993. 13-Week Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Triclosan in CD-1® Mice.: Hazleton Washington, Inc. As cited in EPA 2008b.

US Department of Health and Human Services. 2008. Household Products Database. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Veldhoen N, Skirrow RC, Osachoff H, Wigmore H, Clapson DJ, Gunderson MP, et al. 2006. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 80(3): 217-227.

Vikon Chemical Company. 1997. Vikol THP+3: Durable bacteriostatic agent for the textile industry. For manufacturing use only. Available: [accessed June 13 2008].

Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, et al. 2007. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environmental health perspectives 115(1): 116-121.