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EWG 2013 Sunscreens Database


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AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). 2008. Healthy Children. Safety & prevention: Sun safety.

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Axelstada M, et al. 2011. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 250(3): 278–290.

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AMA (American Medical Association). 2009. Report 4 of the Council on Science and Public Health (A-09): Appropriate Supplementation of Vitamin D, Resolution 425, A-08, Reference Committee D.

Antaria 2010. United States Patent Application Publication, US 2010/0310871. Mesoporous Zinc Oxide Powder and method for production thereof. Pub. Date, Dec 9, 2010.

Antaria. 2012. Review of ZinClear-IM™ product range in line with the

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Ashby J, Tinwell H, Plautz J, Twomey K, Lefevre PA. 2001. Lack of binding to isolated estrogen or androgen receptors, and inactivity in the immature rat uterotrophic assay, of the ultraviolet sunscreen filters Tinosorb M-active and Tinosorb S. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 34(3): 287-91.

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Autier P, Dore JF. 1998. Influence of sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk. EPIMEL and EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Int J Cancer 77: 533-7.

Autier P, Dore JF, Negrier S, Lienard D, Panizzon R, Lejeune FJ, Guggisber D, Eggermont AMM. 1999. Sunscreen Use and Duration of Sun Exposure: a Double-Blind, Randomized Trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 91(15): 1304-1309.

Autier P, Dore JF, Reis AC, Grivegnee A, Ollivaud L, Truchetet F, et al. 2000. Sunscreen use and intentional exposure to ultraviolet A and B radiation: a double blind randomized trial using personal dosimeters. Br J Cancer 83(9): 1243-8.

Autier P, Boniol M, Dore JF. 2007. Sunscreen use and increased duration of intentional sun exposure: still a burning issue. Int J Cancer 121(1): 1–5.

Autier P. 2009. Sunscreen abuse for intentional sun exposure. Br J Dermatol 161 Suppl 3: 40-5.

Autier P, Doré JF, Eggermont AM, Coebergh JW. 2011. Epidemiological evidence that UVA radiation is involved in the genesis of cutaneous melanoma. Curr Opin Oncol. 2011 (2): 189-96. doi: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e3283436e5d.

Barker PJ, Branch A. 2008. The interaction of modern sunscreen formulations with surface coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings. 62(3): 313-320.

Baron ED, Stevens SR. 2002. Topical Review: sunscreens and immune protection. Br J Dermatol 146: 933-37.

BASF 2000. Z-Cote microfine zinc oxide Available:

BASF. 2006. Technical Information: Uvinul, T-Lite and Z-COTE grades.

BASF 2010. Z-COTE Grades – Statement on Particle Size Distribution and Safety. 3/30/2010.

BASF 2013. Sunscreen Simulator: An efficient Tool to Predict UVB and UVA Protection.

BCCDC. 2003. Radiation Issue Notes (RIN) #15 – Sunscreens and their correct application. British Columbia Centre for Disease Control.

Beeby A, Jones AE. 2000. The photophysical properties of menthyl anthranilate: A UV-A sunscreen. Photochemistry and Photobiology 72(1): 10-15.

Beitner H, Norell SE, Ringborg U, Wennersten G, Mattson B. 1990. Malignant melanoma: aetiological importance of individual pigmentation and sun exposure. Br J Dermatol 122(1): 43-51.

Benech-Kieffer F, Wegrich P, Schwarzenbach R, Klecak G, Weber T, Leclaire J, Schaefer H. 2000. Percutaneous absorption of sunscreens in vitro: Interspecies comparison, skin models and reproducibility aspects. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology 13(6): 324-335.

Benech-Kieffer F, Meuling WJ, Leclerc C, Roza L, Leclaire J, Nohynek G. 2003. Percutaneous absorption of Mexoryl SX in human volunteers: comparison with in vitro data. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 16(6): 343-55.

Berset G, Gonzenbach H, Christ R, Martin R, Deflandre A, Mascotte R, et al. 1996. Proposed protocol for determination of photostability. Part I: Cosmetic UV-Filters. Int J Cosmet Sci 18: 167-77.

Bonda CA. 2005. The Photostability of Organic Sunscreen Actives: A Review. In: Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development, 3rd edition (Shaath NA, ed). Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.

Börm PJ, Robbins D, Haubold S, Kuhlbusch T, Fissan H, Donaldson K, et al. 2006. The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC. Part Fibre Toxicol 3: 11.

Branna T. 2011. “Recent FDA Action Draws Big Crowd in Florida.” Happi – Household and Personal Products Industry. October 2011.

Bryden AM, Moseley H, Ibbotson SH, Chowdhury MMU, et al. 2006. Photopatch testing of 1155 patients: results of the U.K. multicentre photopatch study group. British Journal of Dermatology, 155: 737–747.

Buser HR, Balmer ME, Schmid P, Kohler M. 2006. Occurrence of UV filters 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and octocrylene in fish from various Swiss rivers with input from wastewater treatment plants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40(5): 1427-31.

Cadet J, Douki T, Ravanat JL, Di Mascio P. 2009. Sensitized formation of oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA by UVA radiation. Photochem Photobiol Sci 8(7): 903-11.

Calafat AM, Wong L-Y, Ye X, Reidy JA, Needham LL. 2008. Concentration of the sunscreen agent, benzophenone-3, in residents of the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Environ Health Perspect 116(7): 893-897.

Cantrell A, McGarvey D, Mulroy L, Truscott T. 1999. Laser flash photolysis studies of the UVA sunscreen Mexoryl SX. Photochem Photobiol 70: 292-97.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 2011. Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001-2006. NCHS Data Brief. No. 59. March 2011.

CDC. 2012. Sunburn and Sun Protective Behaviors Among Adults Aged 18–29 Years — United States, 2000–2010. MMWR May 11, 2012 / 61(18):317-322.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 2013. Skin Cancer Trends.

Chatelain E, Gabard B. 2001. Photostabilization of butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate by bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (Tinosorb S), a new UV broadband filter. Photochemistry and Photobiology 74(3): 401-06.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation. 2005. Time and Extent Application for Bisoctrizole. Prepared to support the Inclusion of Bisoctrizole into FDA’s Monograph for Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; (64 FR 27666-27693, as amended by 66 FR 6748567487, Docket No. 78N-0038). April 11 2005.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation. 2005. Time and Extent Application for Bemotrizinol. Prepared to support the Inclusion of Bemotrizinol into FDA’s Monograph for Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; (64 FR 27666-27693, as amended by 66 FR 6748567487, Docket No. 78N-0038). April 11 2005

CIE (Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage). 1998. Erythema Reference Action Spectrum and Standard Erythema Dose. Joint ISO/CIE Standard. ISO 17166: 1999/CIE S 007-1998. Available:

Coleho SG, Hearing VJ. 2010. UVA tanning is involved in the increased incidence of skin cancers in fair-skinned young women. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. 23(1): 57-63.

Colipa. 2009. Guidelines: Method for in-vitro determination of UVA protection. Colipa – The European Cosmetics Association. Prepared by the COLIPA In vitro UV Protection Method Task Force. June 2009.

Consumers Union. 2007. Sunscreens: Some are short on protection. Consumer Reports 72(7): 6.

Cosmetics Europe. 2011. Guidelines: Method for in vitro determination of UVA protection. Available:

CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association). 2006. Comments of the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association Regarding the Scientific and Legal Issues Associated With Nanotechnology in Personal Care Products. Comments. Washington, DC: Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA).

CTFA/NDMA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association and Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association). 1996. CTFA/NDMA Taskforce Report on Critical Wavelength Determination for the Evaluation of the UVA Efficacy of Sunscreen Products: Cosmetics, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association.

Damiani E, Baschong W, Greci L. 2007. UV-Filter combinations under UV-A exposure: Concomitant quantification of over-all spectral stability and molecular integrity. J Photochem Photobiol B 87(2): 95-104.

Damiani E, Astolfi P, Giesinger J, Ehlis T, Herzog B, Greci L, et al. 2010. Assessment of the photo-degradation of UV-filters and radical-induced peroxidation in cosmetic sunscreen formulations. Free Radical Research 44(3): 304-12.

Danovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C, Giovannelli D, Damiani E, Astolfi P, Greci L, Pusceddu A. 2008. Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections. Environ Health Perspect. 116(4): 441-7.

Deflandre A, Lang G. 1988. Photostability assessment of sunscreens: benzylidene camphor and dibenzoylmethane derivatives. Int J Cosmet Sci 10: 53-62.

Dennis LK, Beane Freeman LE, Vanbeek MJ. 2003. Sunscreen use and the risk for melanoma: a quantitative review. Ann. Intern. Med.139: 966–978.

Diffey BL. 1994. A method for broad spectrum classification of sunscreens. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 16: 47-52.

Diffey BL. 2001. When should sunscreen be reapplied? J Am Acad Dermatol 45(6): 882-885.

Diffey BL. 2009a. Sunscreens as a preventative measure in melanoma: an evidence-based approach or the precautionary principle? Br J Dermatol 161 Suppl 3: 25-7.

Diffey BL. 2009b. Spectral uniformity: a new index of broad spectrum (UVA) protection. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 31(1): 63-68.

Diffey BL. 2012. The FDA final rule on labeling and effectiveness testing of sunscreens: Too little, too late? Letter to Editor. J Am Acad Dermatol. 66(1): 162-3.

Dondi D, Albini A, Serpone N. 2006. Interactions between different solar UVB/UVA filters contained in commercial suncreams and consequent loss of UV protection. Photochem Photobiol Sci 5(9): 835-843.

Draelos ZD. 2010. Are sunscreens safe? Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 9: 1-2.

Dupuy A, Dunant A, Grob JJ. 2005. Randomized controlled trial testing the impact of high-protection sunscreens on sun-exposure behavior. Arch Dermatol 141(8): 950-6.

Durrer, S, Ehnes, C, Fuetsch, M, Maerkel, K, Schlumpf, M, Lichtensteiger, W. 2007. Estrogen sensitivity of target genes and expression of nuclear receptor co-regulators in rat prostate after pre- and postnatal exposure to the ultraviolet filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor. Environ Health Perspect. 115 Suppl 1, 42-50.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2011. Health Effects of Overexposure to the Sun. (Last updated Dec 16, 2011).

European Commission. 2006. Recommendation on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating thereto, OJ L265, 2006 ⁄7647 ⁄EC, 39–43.

EU SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety). 2012. Opinion on ZnO (nano form), 18 September 2012. European Union.

EU SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks). 2006. SCENIHR modified opinion on the appropriateness of existing methodologies to assess the potential risks associated with engineered and adventitious products of nanotechnologies. Adopted by the SCENIHR March 10, 2006, after public consultation. SCENIHR/002/05

EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2007. Comments from Environmental Working Group on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph for Sunscreens Docket: Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph, Docket number: 1978N-0038, RIN: 0910-AF43

EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2010. U.S. Sunscreens Get Flunking Grade for UVA Protection. Environmental Working Group, Washington DC.

EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2010. Unpublished test results.

EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2011. Comments from Environmental Working Group on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Draft Guidance on Nanotechnology. Docket number: FDA-2010-D-0530.

EWG. 2013. EWG’s Skin Deep Cosmetics Safety Database. Available:

Faass O, Schlumpf M, Reolon S, Henseler M, Maerkel K, Durrer S. 2009. Female sexual behavior, estrous cycle and gene expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions after pre- and postnatal exposure to endocrine active UV filters. Neurotoxicology 30(2): 249-60.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2007. Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph; Proposed Rule. In: 21 CFR Parts 347 and 352. Federal Register: U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Available:

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FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2011a. Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use, 76 Fed. Reg. 35,672 (June 17, 2011).

FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2011b. Draft — Not for Implementation: Guidance for Industry. Enforcement Policy – OTC Sunscreen Drug Products Marketed Without an Approved Application. Available:

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2011c. Retinyl Palmitate Press Statement. January 27, 2011. Provided to EWG on May 10, 2011 by FDA Spokesperson Shelly Burgess.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2011d. Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information Regarding Dosage Forms. RIN 0910-ZA40, [Docket No FDA-1978-N-0018], 21 CFR Part 352, 4160-01-P.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2011e. Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. RIN 0910-AF43, [Docket No FDA-1978-N-0018], 21 CFR Part 201, 4160-01-P.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2012. Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay of Compliance Dates. 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310, [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038), RIN 0910-AF43. Department of Health and Human Services, 4160-01-P.

Ferrero L, Pissavini M, Marguerie S, Zastrow L. 2003. Efficiency of a continuous height distribution model of sunscreen film geometry to predict a realistic sun protection factor. J. Cosmet. Sci. 54: 463 – 481.

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FOE (Friends of the Earth). 2009. Nanotechnology and Sunscreens: A Consumer Guide for Avoiding Nano-Sunscreens. Last updated 3/20/09.

FOE (Friends of the Earth. 2012). Sunscreen scandal questions and answers. Available: Accessed: April 24, 2013

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Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. 2003. Epidemiologic evidence for different roles of ultraviolet A and B radiation in melanoma mortality rates. Ann Epidemiol 13(6): 395-404.

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Gilbert E, Pirot F, Bertholle V. 2013. Commonly used UV filter toxicity on biological functions: review of last decade studies. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. doi: 10.1111/ics.12030

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Gonzalez-Perez R, Trebol I, Garcia-Rio I, Arregui MA, Soloeta R. 2007. Allergic contact dermatitis from methylene-bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (Tinosorb M). Contact Dermatitis 56(2): 121.

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