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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

City of Grand Prairie

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

31

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND10ND
2013N/A00N/A
2014ND80ND
2015ND80ND
2016ND80ND
2017ND60ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-08-131208543010ND
2014-04-23Q1412991001ND
2014-06-04Q1419331002ND
2014-06-26Q1424023040ND
2014-06-26Q1424023005ND
2014-06-26Q1424023003ND
2014-06-26Q1424023002ND
2014-09-10Q1442991002ND
2014-09-10Q1442991005ND
2015-03-11Q1509064001ND
2015-06-09Q1521042004ND
2015-07-14Q1526936007ND
2015-07-14Q1526936006ND
2015-07-14Q1526936003ND
2015-07-14Q1526936001ND
2015-10-07Q1539391012ND
2015-10-07Q1539391014ND
2016-01-14Q1601729018ND
2016-01-14Q1601729016ND
2016-01-14Q1601729014ND
2016-01-14Q1601729011ND
2016-03-01Q1608611002ND
2016-07-14Q1628712002ND
2016-10-05Q1642114002ND
2016-12-05Q1652555001ND
2017-01-05Q1700632002ND
2017-01-05Q1700632016ND
2017-06-27Q1726535024ND
2017-06-27Q1726535014ND
2017-06-27Q1726535021ND
2017-06-27Q1726535020ND