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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

Emmaus Borough Public Water

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

120

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND200ND
2013ND200ND
2014ND200ND
2015ND200ND
2016ND200ND
2017ND200ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-16120007141ND
2012-02-16120007142ND
2012-02-16120007143ND
2012-02-16120007144ND
2012-02-16120007138ND
2012-02-16120007139ND
2012-02-16120007140ND
2012-02-16120007137ND
2012-05-15120019152ND
2012-05-15120019149ND
2012-05-15120019150ND
2012-05-15120019148ND
2012-08-06120032374ND
2012-08-06120032371ND
2012-08-06120032372ND
2012-08-06120032370ND
2012-11-13120047634ND
2012-11-13120047631ND
2012-11-13120047632ND
2012-11-13120047630ND
2013-02-21130008326ND
2013-02-21130008327ND
2013-02-21130008328ND
2013-02-21130008329ND
2013-02-21130008323ND
2013-02-21130008324ND
2013-02-21130008325ND
2013-02-21130008322ND
2013-05-20130020737ND
2013-05-20130020734ND
2013-05-20130020735ND
2013-05-20130020733ND
2013-08-22130037438ND
2013-08-22130037435ND
2013-08-22130037436ND
2013-08-22130037434ND
2013-11-26130052992ND
2013-11-26130052989ND
2013-11-26130052990ND
2013-11-26130052988ND
2014-02-26140008220ND
2014-02-26140008221ND
2014-02-26140008222ND
2014-02-26140008223ND
2014-02-26140008217ND
2014-02-26140008218ND
2014-02-26140008219ND
2014-02-26140008216ND
2014-05-27140021794ND
2014-05-27140021791ND
2014-05-27140021792ND
2014-05-27140021790ND
2014-08-28140038937ND
2014-08-28140038934ND
2014-08-28140038935ND
2014-08-28140038933ND
2014-11-25140053580ND
2014-11-25140053577ND
2014-11-25140053578ND
2014-11-25140053576ND
2015-02-2412434977ND
2015-02-2412434999ND
2015-02-2412435020ND
2015-02-2412435041ND
2015-02-2412434911ND
2015-02-2412434932ND
2015-02-2412434954ND
2015-02-2412434890ND
2015-05-2712788708ND
2015-05-2712788673ND
2015-05-2712788695ND
2015-05-2712788652ND
2015-08-2613301785ND
2015-08-2613301739ND
2015-08-2613301760ND
2015-08-2613301718ND
2015-11-2313548707ND
2015-11-2313548571ND
2015-11-2313548594ND
2015-11-2313548550ND
2016-03-0714020487ND
2016-03-0714020509ND
2016-03-0714020530ND
2016-03-0714020551ND
2016-03-0714020420ND
2016-03-0714020441ND
2016-03-0714020462ND
2016-03-0714020399ND
2016-05-2414296582ND
2016-05-2414296558ND
2016-05-2414618848ND
2016-05-2414296549ND
2016-08-3014785497ND
2016-08-3014785435ND
2016-08-3014785467ND
2016-08-3014785430ND
2016-11-1715267407ND
2016-11-1715267381ND
2016-11-1715267394ND
2016-11-1715267351ND
2017-03-0715836047ND
2017-03-0715836052ND
2017-03-0715836053ND
2017-03-0715836054ND
2017-03-0715836048ND
2017-03-0715836049ND
2017-03-0715836050ND
2017-03-0715836051ND
2017-05-2416142591ND
2017-05-2416142592ND
2017-05-2416142593ND
2017-05-2416142594ND
2017-08-3116612306ND
2017-08-3116612307ND
2017-08-3116612308ND
2017-08-3116612309ND
2017-11-0917345758ND
2017-11-0917345759ND
2017-11-0917345760ND
2017-11-0917345761ND