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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

Prescott Valley WD Upper

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

30

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND60ND
2013ND80ND
2014ND50ND
2015N/A00N/A
2016ND60ND
2017ND50ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-31201202010049VND
2012-01-31201202010048VND
2012-01-31201202010047VND
2012-01-31201202010046VND
2012-01-31201202010044VND
2012-11-262111802-01VND
2013-02-14201302150332VND
2013-02-14201302150331VND
2013-02-14201302150330VND
2013-02-14201302150329VND
2013-02-14201302150328VND
2013-02-14201302150327VND
2013-02-14201302150326VND
2013-10-16201310170112VND
2014-01-15201401150464VND
2014-01-15201401150463VND
2014-01-15201401150462VND
2014-01-15201401150461VND
2014-01-15201401150459VND
2016-02-09201602100057VND
2016-02-09201602100056VND
2016-02-09201602100055VND
2016-02-10201602110030VND
2016-02-10201602110029VND
2016-02-10201602110028VND
2017-02-14201702150185VND
2017-02-14201702150190VND
2017-02-14201702150189VND
2017-02-14201702150188VND
2017-02-14201702150187VND