Menu

EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

Donate

Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHXS)

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Perfluorohexane sulfonate is a member of a group of perfluorinated chemicals used in many consumer products. Perfluorinated chemicals can cause serious health effects, including cancer, endocrine disruption, accelerated puberty, liver and immune system damage, and thyroid changes. These chemicals are persistent in the environment and they accumulate in people. Click here to read more about perfluorinated chemicals.

2012-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

25

states detected

112

utilities detected

5.2 million

people served

25

states over health guideline

106

utilities over health guideline

3.9 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for perfluorohexane sulfonate

Cancer

Harm to the immune system

Hormone disruption

Harm to fetal growth and child development

Harm to the liver

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 1 ppt

The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppt for perfluorohexane sulfonate was defined by EWG based on studies by Phillipe Grandjean of Harvard University and many other independent researchers who found reduced effectiveness of vaccines and adverse impacts on mammary gland development from exposure to PFOA and PFOS, the two PFAS most widely detected in drinking water. This health guideline applies to the entire class of PFAS detected in water.

ppt = parts per trillion

States reporting perfluorohexane sulfonate in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
New York593,70071,195,750
New Jersey4771,4804771,480
California7477,6939658,734
Florida10351,09510351,095
North Carolina4309,2415325,741
Delaware1301,0001301,000
Wisconsin7298,7247298,724
Arizona4221,1354221,135
Pennsylvania5181,1405181,140
Texas18178,72216177,519
Minnesota5166,4265166,426
Massachusetts8152,5828152,582
Alaska7115,0497115,049
Colorado359,000359,000
New Hampshire45,697735,752
West Virginia329,577329,577
Illinois224,375224,375
Washington122,926122,926
Oklahoma220,403220,403
Indiana116,800116,800
Ohio116,551116,551
Kansas115,840115,840
Maine114,025114,025
South Dakota113,646113,646
Rhode Island11751175
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce perfluorohexane sulfonate

carbon filter icon

Activated Carbon

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of perfluorohexane sulfonate, 2012-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Devens Massdevelopment*Devens, MA9 of 945,222.2 ppt6,500
Ayer DPW Water DivisionAyer, MA6 of 617,500.0 ppt7,427
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA5 of 188,835.2 ppt34,257
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA11 of 196,940.1 ppt35,000
Shirley Water DistrictShirley, MA1 of 22,500.0 ppt4,944
Oatman Water CompanyScottsdale, AZ2 of 2710.0 ppt129
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA2 of 12341.7 ppt18,954
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO36 of 38229.7 ppt19,000
Widefield WSD*Colorado Springs, CO11 of 17103.6 ppt19,000
Wright-Patterson AFB Area A PWSWright Patterson Afb, OH5 of 876.6 ppt16,551
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL2 of 271.5 ppt19,000
Atlantic City Municipal Utilities AuthorityAtlantic City, NJ7 of 767.7 ppt152,415
Issaquah Water SystemIssaquah, WA3 of 964.4 ppt22,926
Newburgh CityNewburgh, NY4 of 462.8 ppt28,000
City of FountainFountain, CO10 of 1259.2 ppt21,000
Ocala Palms (consec.)Ocala, FL2 of 249.0 ppt100
City of Ocala*Ocala, FL2 of 249.0 ppt50,924
Rhinelander Water & WastewaterRhinelander, WI2 of 636.2 ppt7,427
Horsham Water&sewer Authority*Horsham, PA7 of 3436.0 ppt25,000
Artesian Water Company*Newark, DE4 of 3635.0 ppt301,000
BemidjiBemidji, MN6 of 1931.4 ppt13,560
Warminster Municipal Authority*Warminster, PA9 of 3830.1 ppt40,000
Bethany*Bethany, OK2 of 427.8 ppt20,307
Stonetown Council Road Mobile Home Park LLCOklahoma City, OK2 of 427.8 ppt96
Camp Pendleton (South)Camp Pendleton, CA61 of 9127.2 ppt39,400
City of Martinsburg*Martinsburg, WV3 of 825.7 ppt15,652
Champion Water District 1 (great Bend)Carthage, NY2 of 625.0 ppt400
Fort Drum*Fort Drum, NY2 of 625.0 ppt34,400
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 923.2 ppt97,645
Westfield Water DepartmentWestfield, MA3 of 1323.2 ppt42,000
Liberty Water Lpsco*Avondale, AZ4 of 1222.5 ppt45,298
Central Boaz PsdClifton, WV2 of 620.7 ppt1,418
City of Vienna*Vienna, WV2 of 620.7 ppt12,507
Warrington Twp Water&sew DeptWarrington, PA3 of 1719.8 ppt18,400
Camp Pendleton (North)Camp Pendleton, CA16 of 2419.5 ppt15,600
Sierra Army DepotHerlong, CA4 of 618.7 ppt1,500
Cottage GroveCottage Grove, MN28 of 10617.9 ppt33,930
Oakland Association Inc.Oakland, RI3 of 517.7 ppt175
Dyer Water DepartmentDyer, IN1 of 416.4 ppt16,800
City of Zephyrhills*Zephyrhills, FL2 of 1713.5 ppt21,823
Pcud-florida Estates (east Pasco)New Port Richey, FL2 of 1713.5 ppt575
Sanford Water DistrictSanford, ME2 of 1611.3 ppt14,025
FridleyFridley, MN1 of 711.1 ppt27,208
Emerald Coast Utilities Authority*Pensacola, FL6 of 5210.7 ppt249,872
Nas Saufley FieldPensacola, FL6 of 5210.7 ppt1,728
City of TempeTempe, AZ4 of 2410.4 ppt165,000
California American Water Company - SuburbanSacramento, CA11 of 679.82 ppt111,768
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN26 of 1469.41 ppt27,378
View-caps Water Supply CorporationAbilene, TX2 of 128.21 ppt2,421
City of TyeTye, TX2 of 128.21 ppt1,258

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHXS), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA5 of 188,835.2 ppt34,257
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA11 of 196,940.1 ppt35,000
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA2 of 12341.7 ppt18,954
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO36 of 38229.7 ppt19,000
Widefield WSD*Colorado Springs, CO11 of 17103.6 ppt19,000
Wright-Patterson AFB Area A PWSWright Patterson Afb, OH5 of 876.6 ppt16,551
City of Stuart - Water PlantStuart, FL2 of 271.5 ppt19,000
Atlantic City Municipal Utilities AuthorityAtlantic City, NJ7 of 767.7 ppt152,415
Issaquah Water SystemIssaquah, WA3 of 964.4 ppt22,926
Newburgh CityNewburgh, NY4 of 462.8 ppt28,000
City of FountainFountain, CO10 of 1259.2 ppt21,000
City of Ocala*Ocala, FL2 of 249.0 ppt50,924
Horsham Water&sewer Authority*Horsham, PA7 of 3436.0 ppt25,000
Artesian Water Company*Newark, DE4 of 3635.0 ppt301,000
BemidjiBemidji, MN6 of 1931.4 ppt13,560
Warminster Municipal Authority*Warminster, PA9 of 3830.1 ppt40,000
Bethany*Bethany, OK2 of 427.8 ppt20,307
Camp Pendleton (South)Camp Pendleton, CA61 of 9127.2 ppt39,400
City of Martinsburg*Martinsburg, WV3 of 825.7 ppt15,652
Fort Drum*Fort Drum, NY2 of 625.0 ppt34,400
United Water PennsylvaniaHarrisburg, PA1 of 923.2 ppt97,645
Westfield Water DepartmentWestfield, MA3 of 1323.2 ppt42,000
Liberty Water Lpsco*Avondale, AZ4 of 1222.5 ppt45,298
City of Vienna*Vienna, WV2 of 620.7 ppt12,507
Warrington Twp Water&sew DeptWarrington, PA3 of 1719.8 ppt18,400
Camp Pendleton (North)Camp Pendleton, CA16 of 2419.5 ppt15,600
Cottage GroveCottage Grove, MN28 of 10617.9 ppt33,930
Dyer Water DepartmentDyer, IN1 of 416.4 ppt16,800
City of Zephyrhills*Zephyrhills, FL2 of 1713.5 ppt21,823
Sanford Water DistrictSanford, ME2 of 1611.3 ppt14,025
FridleyFridley, MN1 of 711.1 ppt27,208
Emerald Coast Utilities Authority*Pensacola, FL6 of 5210.7 ppt249,872
City of TempeTempe, AZ4 of 2410.4 ppt165,000
California American Water Company - SuburbanSacramento, CA11 of 679.82 ppt111,768
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN26 of 1469.41 ppt27,378
City of Abilene*Abilene, TX2 of 128.21 ppt123,886
City of PleasantonPleasanton, CA2 of 106.80 ppt73,067
New Windsor Consolidated WD*New Windsor, NY2 of 205.08 ppt30,450
WoodburyWoodbury, MN3 of 384.71 ppt64,350
City of Greensboro*Greensboro, NC1 of 84.25 ppt277,080
Pierre*Pierre, SD2 of 243.88 ppt13,646
NJ American Water - Raritan*Shamong, NJ2 of 363.03 ppt615,430
Belvidere*Belvidere, IL1 of 122.64 ppt23,500
Moore County Public Util. - Pinehurst*Carthage, NC2 of 412.00 ppt19,368
California Water Service (CWS) - VisaliaSan Jose, CA2 of 861.98 ppt135,923
City of Great BendGreat Bend, KS1 of 201.85 ppt15,840
Golden Heart Utilities*Fairbanks, AK1 of 31.83 ppt78,324
College Utilities Corporation*Fairbanks, AK1 of 31.83 ppt27,000
Madison Water Utility*Madison, WI7 of 511.34 ppt235,000
La Crosse WaterworksLa Crosse, WI1 of 261.23 ppt53,000

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHXS), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.