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Thallium

Status: National drinking water standard exists

 

Thalium is a naturally occurring metal released into the environment from metal smelting and coal burning. Exposure to too much thalium can cause hair loss, liver damage, reduced sperm motility and nervous system impairment.

2015:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

24

states detected

174

utilities detected

1.9 million

people served

22

states over health guideline

116

utilities over health guideline

435,000

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for thallium

Hair loss

Harm to the liver

Harm to the central nervous system

Harm to the brain and nervous system

Harm to the male reproductive system

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

Health Guideline 0.1 ppb

The health guideline of 0.1 ppb for thallium was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against harm to internal organs.

ppb = parts per billion.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The enforceable federal standard that defines the highest level of a contaminant allowed in drinking water.

ppb = parts per billion.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level Goal (MCLG)0.500 ppb

A non-enforceable federal health guideline. For cancer-causing chemicals, these health goals are typically set to zero.

ppb = parts per billion.

States reporting thallium in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
California33,28317659,466
New York4112,90914360,363
Utah831,9139350,419
Virginia004156,467
Washington6105,9038108,229
Kentucky14,5381360,569
Colorado630,9081054,396
Florida4939,1885745,416
Pennsylvania1344,2321344,232
Massachusetts229,271229,271
Arizona130227,830
South Carolina311,536311,536
North Carolina47,23447,234
Texas54,42054,420
Wisconsin12,11923,469
Arkansas23,03623,036
Alabama0012,493
Iowa22,40922,409
Wyoming18301830
Ohio14811481
Oregon13251325
Nevada13001300
South Dakota12001200
Indiana120120
MORE
LESS

Utilities with the highest amounts of thallium, 2015

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Kathleen Oaks Mobile Home ParkLakeland, FL1 of 13.00 ppb35
Davenport Mob EstHaines City, FL1 of 13.00 ppb390
White Haven CenterWhite Haven, PA1 of 12.00 ppb659
Yuma West Mobile Home ParkYuma, AZ1 of 11.90 ppb30
Sugar Creek ResthomeWorthington, PA1 of 21.50 ppb176
Clinton WaterworksClinton, WI3 of 31.50 ppb2,119
Dallas, Town ofDallas, NC1 of 11.40 ppb6,795
Cabazon Water DistrictCabazon, CA1 of 11.40 ppb2,535
Caernarvon Township AuthorityMorgantown, PA3 of 31.33 ppb4,139
Dayton, Town OfDayton, WY1 of 11.31 ppb830
Jordanelle Special Service District*Heber City, UT1 of 11.30 ppb1,782
Lucerne Lakeside Mobile Home CommunityWinter Haven, FL1 of 11.20 ppb280
Hunt Farms S/dGarner, NC1 of 11.12 ppb88
Inwood EstatesPlymouth, IN1 of 11.10 ppb20
Eagle Mountain CityEagle Mountain, UT10 of 131.04 ppb24,000
California Water Service Co-lake HughesSan Jose, CA1 of 31.000 ppb673
Harmar Township Muni Authority*Cheswick, PA1 of 11.000 ppb2,921
Twin Pines Health Care CenterWest Grove, PA1 of 11.000 ppb120
Snell Isle Realty LLCAuburndale, FL1 of 11.000 ppb200
Martins Community Lp Mobile Home ParkCochranville, PA1 of 11.000 ppb180
Harmony HomesAltamonte Springs, FL1 of 10.900 ppb234
Mount Blanchard VillageMt Blanchard, OH1 of 20.900 ppb481
Annawood SubdivisionTallahassee, FL1 of 10.800 ppb115
Selah, City OfSelah, WA2 of 20.700 ppb7,718
Gardner Water DepartmentGardner, MA1 of 20.700 ppb19,065
City of Yakima Water Division*Yakima, WA2 of 20.700 ppb65,238
Branford Water Treatment PlantBranford, FL1 of 10.700 ppb700
North Pointe S/dAuburndale, FL1 of 10.700 ppb192
Twin Creeks PropertiesLos Altos, CA1 of 10.690 ppb75
Stw Property DuplexesLake Alfred, FL1 of 10.600 ppb100

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Thallium, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

MORE
LESS
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Eagle Mountain CityEagle Mountain, UT10 of 131.04 ppb24,000
City of Yakima Water Division*Yakima, WA2 of 20.700 ppb65,238
Gardner Water DepartmentGardner, MA1 of 20.700 ppb19,065
Town of Hempstead Water DepartmentEast Meadow, NY9 of 210.552 ppb110,000
Hanson Water DepartmentHanson, MA1 of 20.500 ppb10,206
Okeechobee Utility AuthorityOkeechobee, FL1 of 10.200 ppb20,000
Pineville Water System*Pineville, KY1 of 10.1000 ppb16,573
City of San LuisSan Luis, AZ6 of 60.0933 ppb27,800
Salt Lake City Water SystemSlc, UT3 of 160.0500 ppb318,506
HempsteadHempstead, NY1 of 90.0489 ppb56,000
Fredonia Village*Fredonia, NY1 of 10.0300 ppb10,984
New York American Water - MerrickMerrick, NY2 of 270.0241 ppb177,000
Western Virginia Water Authority*Roanoke, VA3 of 90.00889 ppb155,000
City of Durango*Durango, CO1 of 120.00833 ppb23,069
California Water Service - South San FranciscoSan Jose, CA2 of 240.00142 ppb56,110
Cal-water Service Company - MarysvilleChico, CA3 of 460.000891 ppb12,017
California Water Service - StocktonSan Jose, CA4 of 340.000441 ppb185,346
California Water Service (CWS) - Bakersfield*San Jose, CA5 of 410.000268 ppb246,371
City of BakersfieldBakersfield, CA1 of 630 ppb138,309

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Thallium, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.