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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Chromium (hexavalent)

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Chromium (hexavalent) is a carcinogen that commonly contaminates American drinking water. Chromium (hexavalent) in drinking water may be due to industrial pollution or natural occurrences in mineral deposits and groundwater. Read more about chromium (hexavalent).

2012-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

50

states detected

8,799

utilities detected

247 million

people served

50

states over health guideline

8,331

utilities over health guideline

230 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for chromium (hexavalent)

Cancer

Harm to the liver

Harm to the reproductive system

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.02 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.02 ppb for chromium (hexavalent) was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

ppb = parts per billion

States reporting chromium (hexavalent) in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
California1,35937,081,5911,39538,680,157
Texas67617,581,04271019,715,432
New York30918,545,19431819,059,100
Florida28614,918,86133517,253,205
Illinois56510,638,23154310,892,576
Pennsylvania2778,558,9332948,863,644
Ohio2747,787,4133118,451,924
New Jersey2027,540,5772158,141,078
Georgia1697,854,9431707,946,298
North Carolina3575,835,4554016,860,061
Tennessee1975,346,4722016,215,845
Virginia1536,124,3351546,137,298
Arizona955,570,0751005,739,957
Michigan2025,516,5861955,722,012
Washington2045,068,8102055,093,179
Massachusetts1694,219,6161904,895,009
Colorado1513,822,7661804,874,697
Maryland474,804,382504,844,909
Alabama2284,431,4982344,577,695
Kentucky2143,848,4402274,077,770
Missouri1513,728,3241583,942,992
South Carolina1843,223,1091843,339,432
Louisiana992,406,8241173,261,420
Indiana1162,725,5991353,242,638
Wisconsin942,724,690972,799,189
Oregon792,662,319842,761,214
Oklahoma1771,832,1462132,633,394
Utah802,556,542822,572,884
Connecticut702,471,360712,507,427
Minnesota552,087,220682,419,335
Nevada192,416,374192,416,374
Kansas1392,102,9611392,126,207
Arkansas1371,561,9291561,698,373
Iowa1501,616,0011731,690,159
Hawaii281,355,144281,355,144
New Mexico371,296,827401,345,877
Nebraska341,119,404351,165,126
Rhode Island71828,120761,006,061
West Virginia107960,25698971,339
Mississippi23550,08251944,040
Idaho26830,86628875,365
Delaware14684,80815692,785
District Of Columbia4664,5724664,572
New Hampshire39517,43540528,435
South Dakota83421,26784434,913
Alaska17431,89917431,899
Maine17411,36319414,363
North Dakota35429,15920407,547
Montana35343,91140384,446
Wyoming48252,03346260,366
Vermont2995,63134150,888
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Filtering technologies that reduce chromium (hexavalent)

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Reverse Osmosis

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Ion Exchange

Utilities with the highest amounts of chromium (hexavalent), 2012-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Norman*Norman, OK80 of 8039.3 ppb72,928
Mccloskey Road LLCHollister, CA12 of 1233.4 ppb25
Dunnigan Water WorksPaso Robles, CA17 of 1733.1 ppb400
City of Los BanosLos Banos, CA208 of 20831.9 ppb37,168
Aptos Ridge Mutual Water CompanyWatsonville, CA10 of 1030.7 ppb50
Kingman Municipal WaterKingman, AZ24 of 2430.0 ppb45,000
City of Buckeye Sonora - SundanceBuckeye, AZ8 of 829.0 ppb15,783
Santa Ynez Rancho Estates Mutual Water CompanySanta Ynez, CA12 of 1228.1 ppb294
Epcor Water - Paradise Valley/ScottsdaleYoungtown, AZ4 of 428.0 ppb11,600
Paradise Rd. Ws #21Salinas, CA11 of 1125.9 ppb48
City of Surprise - Mountain Vista*Surprise, AZ16 of 1623.5 ppb31,649
Harbor View WaCastroville, CA11 of 1123.5 ppb75
Volta Community SDLos Banos, CA14 of 1423.1 ppb150
Joshua Basin Water DistrictJoshua Tree, CA65 of 6522.9 ppb9,534
Paradise Lake Mutual Water CompanySalinas, CA24 of 2422.8 ppb180
City of KermanKerman, CA81 of 8122.0 ppb14,068
West Park PropertiesCrescent City, CA5 of 522.0 ppb112
Antelope Valley Mobile EstatesRosamond, CA16 of 1620.8 ppb60
Buehner Water System - Weber ComplexPatterson, CA13 of 1320.4 ppb100
Woodstock Property Owners AssociationSanta Ynez, CA33 of 3620.3 ppb350
Strawberry Rd. Ws #06Royal Oaks, CA10 of 1020.1 ppb150
Royal Oak Place WsWatsonville, CA20 of 2019.5 ppb60
First Mutual Water SystemRosamond, CA15 of 1519.5 ppb35
City of PattersonPatterson, CA111 of 11119.4 ppb20,560
Valencia Water Company Town DivisionBuckeye, AZ15 of 1518.8 ppb5,068
Rolling Acres Mutual Water CompanyDavis, CA7 of 718.7 ppb40
Monterey Bay AcademyWatsonville, CA17 of 1718.6 ppb400
Golden Meadows Community Services DistrictRed Bluff, CA4 of 418.3 ppb102
SBNDO County Service Area 70JVictorville, CA112 of 11218.2 ppb10,111
Amezcua - Garcia WaterThermal, CA9 of 917.7 ppb316
Desmond Rd. Ws #03Castroville, CA10 of 1017.6 ppb55
Westucky Water AssociationWoodland, CA2 of 217.5 ppb33
Valenzuela Water SystemHollister, CA14 of 1517.5 ppb55
Coachella Water AuthorityCoachella, CA123 of 12417.4 ppb41,904
Galindo Housing FacilityBermuda Dunes, CA10 of 1017.3 ppb50
Hidden Hills MobilodgeSan Luis Obispo, CA6 of 717.2 ppb55
City of Davis*Davis, CA247 of 26417.1 ppb67,298
Oak Trail Ranch Mutual WaterBuellton, CA16 of 1617.0 ppb105
Yolo County Housing AuthorityWoodland, CA14 of 1417.0 ppb432
MooreMoore, OK47 of 4716.9 ppb41,138
City Of DixonDixon, CA70 of 7016.8 ppb8,593
Green Acres WaCastroville, CA10 of 1016.7 ppb50
Fisherman's Bend Mobile Home ParkNewman, CA13 of 1316.5 ppb80
Hidden Valley WaRoyal Oaks, CA6 of 616.2 ppb51
City of WoodlandWoodland, CA100 of 10216.1 ppb56,464
Thermal Mutual Water CompanyThermal, CA10 of 1016.0 ppb100
Coachella Valley Water District: I.d. No. 8Palm Desert, CA31 of 3115.9 ppb5,059
San Andreas Mutual Water CompanyAptos, CA30 of 3015.7 ppb350
MustangMustang, OK12 of 1215.1 ppb15,435
Dolan Rd. Mutual Water CompanyMoss Landing, CA10 of 1015.1 ppb120

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Chromium (hexavalent), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Norman*Norman, OK80 of 8039.3 ppb72,928
City of Los BanosLos Banos, CA208 of 20831.9 ppb37,168
Kingman Municipal WaterKingman, AZ24 of 2430.0 ppb45,000
City of Buckeye Sonora - SundanceBuckeye, AZ8 of 829.0 ppb15,783
Epcor Water - Paradise Valley/ScottsdaleYoungtown, AZ4 of 428.0 ppb11,600
City of Surprise - Mountain Vista*Surprise, AZ16 of 1623.5 ppb31,649
City of KermanKerman, CA81 of 8122.0 ppb14,068
City of PattersonPatterson, CA111 of 11119.4 ppb20,560
SBNDO County Service Area 70JVictorville, CA112 of 11218.2 ppb10,111
Coachella Water AuthorityCoachella, CA123 of 12417.4 ppb41,904
City of Davis*Davis, CA247 of 26417.1 ppb67,298
MooreMoore, OK47 of 4716.9 ppb41,138
City of WoodlandWoodland, CA100 of 10216.1 ppb56,464
MustangMustang, OK12 of 1215.1 ppb15,435
Goodyear Water Department*Goodyear, AZ20 of 2014.9 ppb50,001
UC - DavisDavis, CA29 of 3113.7 ppb40,185
Rosamond CSDRosamond, CA39 of 3913.1 ppb16,618
City of WatsonvilleWatsonville, CA95 of 9711.7 ppb65,739
City of VacavilleElmira, CA114 of 11511.7 ppb96,735
Epcor Water - Sun CityYoungtown, AZ36 of 3610.7 ppb38,016
Los Angeles County WW District 4 & 34-LancasterAlhambra, CA205 of 20610.4 ppb180,131
Epcor Water - Agua Fria*Youngtown, AZ49 of 5610.1 ppb80,959
City of El MirageEl Mirage, AZ35 of 3510.0 ppb36,905
Rio Linda/Alverta Community Water DistrictRio Linda, CA98 of 989.99 ppb13,386
Los Angeles County WW District 40 Reg 38 Lake Los AngelesAlhambra, CA70 of 709.88 ppb13,600
Liberty Water Lpsco*Avondale, AZ24 of 249.83 ppb45,298
USMC - 29 Palms29 Palms, CA74 of 859.74 ppb28,760
City of HollisterHollister, CA66 of 799.72 ppb36,108
Pima UtilitiesSun Lakes, AZ12 of 129.63 ppb20,000
Twentynine Palms Water DistrictTwentynine Palms, CA88 of 939.31 ppb18,600
City of Edmond - Arcadia Lake*Arcadia, OK88 of 889.06 ppb77,616
YukonYukon, OK4 of 48.94 ppb22,498
Mission Springs WDDesert Hot Springs, CA44 of 448.94 ppb34,626
Quartz Hill Water District*Quartz Hill, CA60 of 608.75 ppb22,000
Arizona Water Company - Apache JunctionPhoenix, AZ8 of 88.69 ppb57,647
Phelan Pinon Hills CSDPhelan, CA121 of 1428.59 ppb24,000
City of Newman Water DepartmentNewman, CA55 of 608.21 ppb10,586
Fruitridge Vista Water CompanySacramento, CA88 of 918.14 ppb15,000
Sunnyslope County Water DistrictHollister, CA197 of 1977.99 ppb19,189
Coachella Valley Water District: Cove Community*Palm Desert, CA490 of 7037.89 ppb198,544
City of Kingsville*Kingsville, TX28 of 287.75 ppb32,736
Sunny Slope Water CompanyPasadena, CA22 of 227.58 ppb32,427
Cal/Am Water Company - San MarinoRosemead, CA122 of 1237.54 ppb40,804
Indio Water AuthorityIndio, CA946 of 9817.51 ppb77,780
California American Water Company - AntelopeSacramento, CA128 of 1317.20 ppb34,168
Hesperia Water DistrictHesperia, CA79 of 997.04 ppb91,627
City of California CityCalifornia City, CA41 of 416.97 ppb14,212
City of Banning*Banning, CA158 of 2386.93 ppb29,965
Cottonwood Municipal Water Cw1Cottonwood, AZ16 of 166.88 ppb11,265
Arizona Water Company - Pinal Valley*Phoenix, AZ38 of 386.82 ppb88,019

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Chromium (hexavalent), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.