Menu Close Menu

Menu

TITANIUM/TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption and Occupational hazards (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
eye shadow1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Occupational hazards

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Unbound particles of respirable size listed as a Carcinogen: California Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidenceCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).

Decreased skin absorption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
The amounts of titanium found in the tape strips and skin preparations were in the order of the analytical determination limit. No Ti was found in the receptor fluid at any sampling time.Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
0 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status

Data Sources

  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
  • California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).
  • Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer