Other ConcernsNon-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low), and Occupational hazards (high)
SYNONYMS2,5-FURANDIONE, 2,5FURANDIONE, and MALEIC ANHYDRIDE
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
See how this product scores for common concerns.
MODERATEAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Known human respiratory toxicant||EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as toxic or harmful||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Possible human any toxicant or allergen||Open scientific literature|
|Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Limited evidence of skin irritation||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|913 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.