Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|nail polish||30 products|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||CosIng|
|Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity||A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|One or more animal studies show no adverse any effects at high doses||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|81845 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
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