Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|daily use with SPF||34 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||17 products|
|eye shadow||15 products|
|serums & essences||13 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||8 products|
|hair color and bleaching||3 products|
|facial cleanser||3 products|
|recreational sunscreen||2 products|
|body firming lotion||2 products|
|pore strips||2 products|
|makeup primer||2 products|
|fragrance for women||1 products|
|hand sanitizer||1 products|
|baby sunscreen||1 products|
|hair spray||1 products|
|fragrance for men||1 products|
|hair styling aide||1 products|
|around-eye cream||1 products|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as lung irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||IJT 24(2):1-20, 2005 (Amended) JACT 8(4):627-41, 1989 (Original Report)|
|1461 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||IJT 24(2):1-20, 2005 (Amended) JACT 8(4):627-41, 1989 (Original Report)|
|nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- IJT 24(2):1-20, 2005 (Amended) JACT 8(4):627-41, 1989 (Original Report)
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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