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Data: Fair

Iron Oxides

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

SEARCH PRODUCTS

Other Concerns

Enhanced skin absorption, Persistence and bioaccumulation (high), and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low)

SYNONYMS

● BLACK IRON OXIDE
● BLACK OXIDE OF IRON
● BROWN IRON OXIDE
● C.I. PIGMENT BROWN 7
● CI 77489
● CI 77491
● CI 77492
● CI 77499
● FERRIC OXIDE
● FERROSOFERRIC OXIDE
● FERROUS-FERRIC OXIDE
● HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE
● IRON BLACK OXIDE
● IRON HYDROXIDE OXIDE
● IRON OXIDE
● IRON OXIDE (FEO)
● IRON OXIDE RED 10-34-PC-2045
● IRON OXIDES
● IRON YELLOW OXIDE
● IRON(II) OXIDE
● MAGNETITE
● NATURAL IRON OXIDE
● PIGMENT BLACK 11
● PIGMENT BROWN 6
● PIGMENT BROWN 7
● PIGMENT RED 101
● PIGMENT YELLOW 42
● PIGMENT YELLOW 43
● RED IRON OXIDE
● SYNTHETIC IRON OXIDE
● YELLOW IRON OXIDE
● YELLOW OXIDE OF IRON

Restricted

Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation


Iron oxides are inorganic chemicals used as colorants.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • LOW
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity
  • LOW
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

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foundation6641 products
lipstick5951 products
concealer3711 products
eye shadow3219 products
lip gloss2371 products
eye liner2118 products
blush2097 products
brow liner2033 products
bronzer/highlighter1986 products
lip liner1040 products
nail polish1001 products
mascara914 products
daily use with SPF743 products
lip balm660 products
facial powder587 products
setting powder/spray416 products
CC cream382 products
BB cream277 products
makeup primer272 products
bar soap208 products
hair color and bleaching187 products
exfoliant/scrub162 products
mask162 products
lip plumper160 products
around-eye cream134 products
recreational sunscreen115 products
facial moisturizer/treatment112 products
lip balm with SPF101 products
shampoo99 products
serums & essences89 products
bath oil/salts/soak85 products
83 products
moisturizer82 products
body oil77 products
body wash/cleanser56 products
glitter53 products
facial cleanser47 products
hair styling aide30 products
conditioner23 products
other eye makeup23 products
eyelash glue19 products
body powder16 products
fragrance for women16 products
hair treatment/serum15 products
anti-aging14 products
sunless tanning11 products
nail glue10 products
body art9 products
nail treatment8 products
skin fading/lightener8 products
pore strips7 products
styling gel/lotion6 products
hair spray6 products
toothpaste5 products
depilatory5 products
toners/astringents5 products
fragrance for men5 products
bubble bath5 products
liquid hand soap4 products
shaving cream4 products
makeup remover4 products
body spray4 products
hair removal waxes4 products
body firming lotion3 products
shaving cream (men's)3 products
beard cleanser3 products
beard oil3 products
baby shampoo3 products
baby lotion3 products
beard care2 products
foot cleansing1 products
tanning oil1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant1 products
body cleansing wipes1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinOpen scientific literature
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityScorecard.org Toxicity Information
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Cancer

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
9326 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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