Other ConcernsEnhanced skin absorption, Persistence and bioaccumulation (high), and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low)
SYNONYMSBLACK IRON OXIDE, BLACK OXIDE OF IRON, BROWN IRON OXIDE, C.I. PIGMENT BROWN 7, CI 77489, CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499, FERRIC OXIDE, FERROSOFERRIC OXIDE, FERROUS-FERRIC OXIDE, HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE, IRON BLACK OXIDE, IRON HYDROXIDE OXIDE, IRON OXIDE, IRON OXIDE (FEO), IRON OXIDE RED 10-34-PC-2045, IRON OXIDES, IRON YELLOW OXIDE, IRON(II) OXIDE, MAGNETITE, NATURAL IRON OXIDE, PIGMENT BLACK 11, PIGMENT BROWN 6, PIGMENT BROWN 7, PIGMENT RED 101, PIGMENT YELLOW 42, PIGMENT YELLOW 43, RED IRON OXIDE, SYNTHETIC IRON OXIDE, YELLOW IRON OXIDE, and YELLOW OXIDE OF IRON
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
Iron oxides are inorganic chemicals used as colorants.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|eye shadow||3904 products|
|lip gloss||2334 products|
|eye liner||2075 products|
|brow liner||1970 products|
|lip liner||1183 products|
|lip balm||832 products|
|facial powder||810 products|
|nail polish||739 products|
|daily use with SPF||579 products|
|setting powder/spray||407 products|
|CC cream||364 products|
|BB cream||336 products|
|makeup primer||304 products|
|hair color and bleaching||159 products|
|bar soap||150 products|
|recreational sunscreen||149 products|
|lip plumper||146 products|
|lip balm with SPF||134 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||130 products|
|around-eye cream||92 products|
|body oil||75 products|
|serums & essences||74 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||55 products|
|body wash/cleanser||47 products|
|facial cleanser||44 products|
|hair styling aide||21 products|
|sunless tanning||17 products|
|body powder||17 products|
|eyelash glue||13 products|
|hair treatment/serum||10 products|
|skin fading/lightener||8 products|
|styling gel/lotion||7 products|
|nail glue||7 products|
|liquid hand soap||6 products|
|nail treatment||6 products|
|pore strips||6 products|
|oil controller||5 products|
|body firming lotion||5 products|
|makeup remover||5 products|
|bubble bath||5 products|
|other eye makeup||4 products|
|body spray||4 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||4 products|
|hand sanitizer||3 products|
|muscle/joint soreness||3 products|
|baby sunscreen||3 products|
|hair-loss treatment||2 products|
|hair spray||2 products|
|foot cleansing||2 products|
|shaving cream||2 products|
|styling mousse/foam||2 products|
|fragrance for men||2 products|
|body art||2 products|
|hand cream||1 products|
|tanning oil||1 products|
|beard care||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Nanomaterial Database|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|9326 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
- NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.