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SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE (COMFREY) LEAF EXTRACT

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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body wash/cleanser10 products
moisturizer10 products
liquid hand soap7 products
facial moisturizer/treatment5 products
shampoo4 products
exfoliant/scrub4 products
lip balm3 products
around-eye cream2 products
facial cleanser2 products
hair styling aide2 products
conditioner2 products
anti-aging2 products
bubble bath2 products
shaving cream2 products
sunless tanning1 products
beach & sport sunscreen1 products
baby soap1 products
styling mousse/foam1 products
hair treatment/serum1 products
serums & essences1 products
oil controller1 products
mask1 products
styling gel/lotion1 products
baby lotion1 products
makeup primer1 products

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicantFDA 2001. FDA Advises Dietary Supplement Manufacturers to Remove Comfrey Products From the Market. FDA Safety Alerts and Advisories.
Known human any toxicantP M. Ridker, S. Ohkuma, W. V. McDermott, C. Trey & R. J. Huxtable. 1985. Hepatic venocclusive disease associated with the consumption of pyrrolizidine-containing dietary supplements. Gastroenterology 88(4), 1050-4.
Limited evidence of any toxicityFDA Herbals 1993

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenFDA 2001. FDA Advises Dietary Supplement Manufacturers to Remove Comfrey Products From the Market. FDA Safety Alerts and Advisories.
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at low dosesI Hirono, H. Mori & M. Haga. 1978. Carcinogenic activity of Symphytum officinale. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 61(3), 865-9.
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsC Behninger, G. Abel, E. Röder, V. Neuberger & W. Göggelmann. 1989. [Studies on the effect of an alkaloid extract of Symphytum officinale on human lymphocyte cultures]. Planta medica 55(6), 518-22.

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
69 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • FDA 2001. FDA Advises Dietary Supplement Manufacturers to Remove Comfrey Products From the Market. FDA Safety Alerts and Advisories.
  • P M. Ridker, S. Ohkuma, W. V. McDermott, C. Trey & R. J. Huxtable. 1985. Hepatic venocclusive disease associated with the consumption of pyrrolizidine-containing dietary supplements. Gastroenterology 88(4), 1050-4.
  • FDA Herbals 1993
  • I Hirono, H. Mori & M. Haga. 1978. Carcinogenic activity of Symphytum officinale. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 61(3), 865-9.
  • C Behninger, G. Abel, E. Röder, V. Neuberger & W. Göggelmann. 1989. [Studies on the effect of an alkaloid extract of Symphytum officinale on human lymphocyte cultures]. Planta medica 55(6), 518-22.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

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