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Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Use restrictions (moderate), Multiple, additive exposure sources (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (moderate)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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facial cleanser177 products
shampoo172 products
mask112 products
facial moisturizer/treatment109 products
exfoliant/scrub96 products
serums & essences61 products
toners/astringents45 products
foundation38 products
body wash/cleanser38 products
moisturizer27 products
conditioner27 products
concealer24 products
hair treatment/serum21 products
facial powder18 products
foot moisturizer17 products
hair color and bleaching17 products
BB cream13 products
body powder11 products
foot cleansing11 products
bar soap9 products
after shave9 products
daily use with SPF8 products
makeup remover8 products
around-eye cream8 products
7 products
anti-aging6 products
lip balm6 products
recreational sunscreen6 products
makeup primer6 products
liquid hand soap6 products
antiperspirant/deodorant6 products
styling gel/lotion6 products
hair styling aide5 products
oil controller5 products
foot odor control5 products
body firming lotion5 products
hand cream4 products
CC cream4 products
bronzer/highlighter3 products
after sun product2 products
beard care2 products
brow liner2 products
damaged skin treatment2 products
nail polish1 products
beard oil1 products
eye makeup remover1 products
shaving cream1 products
sunless tanning1 products
body spray1 products
skin fading/lightener1 products
hair spray1 products
depilatory1 products
lip balm with SPF1 products
beard cleanser1 products
fragrance for men1 products
pore strips1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - anyCosIng
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of skin irritationOpen scientific literature

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information availableFDA Everything Added to Food
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status


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Concern Reference
Not likely to be carcinogenic in humansOpen scientific literature

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
32066 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at .
  • Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from, Oct 16, 2006.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer