SYNONYMS3-ACETYLPROPIONIC ACID, 4-KETOVALERIC ACID, 4-OXO PENTANOIC ACID, 4-OXOPENTANOIC ACID, 4-OXOVALERIC ACID, LEVULINIC ACID, PENTANOIC ACID, 4-OXO, and PENTANOIC ACID, 4OXO
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
Levulinic Acid is an organic acid.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|facial moisturizer/treatment||20 products|
|body wash/cleanser||19 products|
|baby lotion||17 products|
|hand cream||14 products|
|facial cleanser||14 products|
|baby wipes||10 products|
|body spray||9 products|
|serums & essences||7 products|
|bubble bath||5 products|
|baby sunscreen||5 products|
|recreational sunscreen||5 products|
|liquid hand soap||4 products|
|makeup remover||4 products|
|baby soap||2 products|
|baby shampoo||2 products|
|styling gel/lotion||2 products|
|diaper cream||2 products|
|hair treatment/serum||2 products|
|hand sanitizer||2 products|
|after sun product||2 products|
|around-eye cream||2 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||1 products|
|sunless tanning||1 products|
|baby toothpaste||1 products|
|skin fading/lightener||1 products|
|hair spray||1 products|
|baby bubble bath||1 products|
|facial powder||1 products|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|589 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans||EPA Water Disinfection By-Products Carcinogenicity|
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2006. EPA Water Disinfection By-Products with Carcinogenicity Estimates. Last updated: 10 April 2006.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.