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ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high), and Occupational hazards (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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nail polish220 products
conditioner119 products
hair color and bleaching53 products
foundation32 products
hand sanitizer20 products
hair treatment/serum20 products
shampoo19 products
hair styling aide10 products
mask9 products
nail treatment8 products
mascara7 products
detangler4 products
facial moisturizer/treatment4 products
styling gel/lotion4 products
facial cleanser3 products
serums & essences3 products
hair spray3 products
moisturizer3 products
body wash/cleanser2 products
moisturizer with SPF2 products
after sun product2 products
toners/astringents1 products
after shave1 products
makeup primer1 products
hand cream1 products
eye liner1 products
hair relaxer1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Isopropyl alcohol disrupts the skin barrier and may enhance penetration of other substances.I Brinkmann & C. Müller-Goymann. 1900. Role of isopropyl myristate, isopropyl alcohol and a combination of both in hydrocortisone permeation across the human stratum corneum. Skin pharmacology and applied skin physiology 16(6), 393-404.

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Harmonised classification and labelling (CLP00) approved by the European Union: this substance causes serious eye irritation.EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2012. GHS Hazard Codes. Appears as: Chemical Name: propan-2-ol; isopropyl alcohol; isopropanol; CAS number: 67-63-0; Classification Hazard Statement Codes: H225|H319

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Application to damaged skin can result in systemic absorption and toxicity.R B. McGrath & R. Einterz. 1989. Absorption of topical isopropyl alcohol in an adult. Critical care medicine 17(11), 1233.
Toxic if ingested.Fahim Zaman, Aslam Pervez & Kenneth Abreo 2002. Isopropyl alcohol intoxication: a diagnostic challenge. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 40(3), E12.

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
The peer-reviewed study reports isopropyl alcohol is associated with occupational bronchitis and respiratory symptoms.Andrés Eduardo Soto-de la Fuente, Magdalena Aguilar-Loya, María Martha Méndez-Vargas, Pablo Zamudio-Martínez, Pablo López-Rojas, Santiago Salinas-Tovar & Irma Araceli Marín-Cotoñieto 2007. [Industrial bronchitis in workers exposed to hydroalcohol]. Revista médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 45(6), 565-72.
Animal evidence suggests occupational exposure to isopropyl alcohol may be harmful to the nasal mucosa.Y Ohashi, Y. Nakai, H. Koshimo, Y. Esaki, H. Ikeoka, S. Horiguchi, K. Teramoto & H. Nakaseko. 1988. Toxicity of isopropyl alcohol exposure on the nasal mucociliary system in the guinea pig. Environmental research 46(1), 25-38.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Human evidence suggests isopropyl alcohol can be a sensitizer.Juan García-Gavín, Ruth Lissens, Ann Timmermans & An Goossens 2011. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by isopropyl alcohol: a missed allergen?. Contact dermatitis 65(2), 101-6.

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
112675 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 15, Suppl. 7, 71 ;1999

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Neurotoxicity

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Concern Reference
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • I Brinkmann & C. Müller-Goymann. 1900. Role of isopropyl myristate, isopropyl alcohol and a combination of both in hydrocortisone permeation across the human stratum corneum. Skin pharmacology and applied skin physiology 16(6), 393-404.
  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2012. GHS Hazard Codes. Appears as: Chemical Name: propan-2-ol; isopropyl alcohol; isopropanol; CAS number: 67-63-0; Classification Hazard Statement Codes: H225|H319
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • R B. McGrath & R. Einterz. 1989. Absorption of topical isopropyl alcohol in an adult. Critical care medicine 17(11), 1233.
  • Fahim Zaman, Aslam Pervez & Kenneth Abreo 2002. Isopropyl alcohol intoxication: a diagnostic challenge. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 40(3), E12.
  • Andrés Eduardo Soto-de la Fuente, Magdalena Aguilar-Loya, María Martha Méndez-Vargas, Pablo Zamudio-Martínez, Pablo López-Rojas, Santiago Salinas-Tovar & Irma Araceli Marín-Cotoñieto 2007. [Industrial bronchitis in workers exposed to hydroalcohol]. Revista médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 45(6), 565-72.
  • Y Ohashi, Y. Nakai, H. Koshimo, Y. Esaki, H. Ikeoka, S. Horiguchi, K. Teramoto & H. Nakaseko. 1988. Toxicity of isopropyl alcohol exposure on the nasal mucociliary system in the guinea pig. Environmental research 46(1), 25-38.
  • Juan García-Gavín, Ruth Lissens, Ann Timmermans & An Goossens 2011. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by isopropyl alcohol: a missed allergen?. Contact dermatitis 65(2), 101-6.
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 15, Suppl. 7, 71 ;1999
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.

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