Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|eye liner||16 products|
|lip liner||6 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||6 products|
|styling mousse/foam||3 products|
|sunless tanning||3 products|
|eye shadow||3 products|
|damaged skin treatment||2 products|
|makeup primer||2 products|
|recreational sunscreen||2 products|
|styling gel/lotion||2 products|
|body powder||1 products|
|lip gloss||1 products|
|hair relaxer||1 products|
|brow liner||1 products|
|hair treatment/serum||1 products|
|hair styling aide||1 products|
|baby sunscreen||1 products|
|facial cleanser||1 products|
|polish remover||1 products|
|daily use with SPF||1 products|
|hair spray||1 products|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||European Union - Banned or Restricted in Cosmetics|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||Open scientific literature|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||Open scientific literature|
|Known human any disruptor||Open scientific literature|
|Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidence||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
|Limited evidence of endocrine disruption||Open scientific literature|
|One or more studies show significant wildlife and the environment disruption||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
|One or more studies show weak endocrine disruption||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at moderate doses||Open scientific literature|
|One or more studies show weak endocrine disruption||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at high doses||Open scientific literature|
|Possible human reproductive or developmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show any effects at very low doses||Open scientific literature|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|One or more human case studies show possible immune or allergenic effects||Open scientific literature|
Biochemical or cellular level changes
|Interferes with gene expresion||Open scientific literature|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Safety assessment was based on related chemical||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|29 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
- EC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
- EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer