Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|hair color and bleaching||36 products|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||JACT 8(4):569-87, 1989 confirmed 04/06|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||CosIng|
|Banned in Canadian cosmetics used around the eyes.||Health Canada 2011. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2011.|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|Cancer - limited evidence||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|Cancer - limited evidence||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||JACT 8(4):569-87, 1989 confirmed 04/06|
|Considered safe based on assumption of low absorption||JACT 8(4):569-87, 1989 confirmed 04/06|
|Insufficient data to determine safety||Final Report 3/04 Available from CIR|
|14 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||JACT 8(4):569-87, 1989 confirmed 04/06|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- JACT 8(4):569-87, 1989 confirmed 04/06
- EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
- European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
- Health Canada 2011. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2011.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- Final Report 3/04 Available from CIR
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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