chemical Class

Bisphenol A & Metabolites

Chemicals in the class:

BADGE-4OH, Bisphenol A

Found in these people:

Participant #1, Participant #10, Fred Gellert, Adelaide Gomer, Jesse Johnson, Winsome McIntosh, Judi Shils, Participant #18, Participant #2, Participant #20, Jessica Welborn, Irene Crowe, Martha Davis, Emily Sayrs, Participant #6, Anonymous Adult RN7, Anonymous Teen 22, Anonymous Adult RN9, Anonymous Adult, Anonymous Adult 2, Anonymous Adult 5, Anonymous Adult 7, Anonymous Adult 9, Anonymous Adult 12, Anonymous Adult 11, Anonymous Adult 15, Anonymous Adult 16, Anonymous Adult 17, Anonymous Adult 18, Anonymous Adult 21, Suzie Canales, Jean Salone, Jennifer Hill-Kelley, Dr. Beverly Wright, Vivian Chang, Adult #108, Sara Corbett, Cord Blood Sample 11, Cord Blood Sample 12, Cord Blood Sample 13, Cord Blood Sample 14, Cord Blood Sample 15, Cord Blood Sample 16, Cord Blood Sample 18, Cord Blood Sample 19, Cord Blood Sample 20

Found in these locations:

CA, USA; Belvedere, CA; Ithaca, NY; New York, NY; Washington, DC; Ross, CA; VA, USA; CO, USA; San Francisco, CA; Littleton, CO; MD, USA; Chicago, IL; Fredericksburg, VA; Lamont, FL; Atlanta, GA; Mountain View, CA; Palo Alto, CA; Berkeley, CA; Alamo, CA; Corpus Christi, TX; Green Bay, WI; New Orleans, LA; Oakland, CA; NY, USA


In use since the 1950's, bisphenol-A (BPA) is a building block for polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. BPA, and its derivative Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), are found in many everyday products such as the lining of metal food and drink cans, plastic baby bottles, pacifiers and baby toys, dental sealants, computers, cell phones, hard plastic water bottles (such as Nalgene), paints, adhesives, enamels, varnishes, CDs and DVDs, and certain microwavable or reusable food and drink containers. These compounds have been shown to leach into food and water from containers—particularly after heating or as plastic ages—and from dental sealants.

BPA is hormone-mimicking chemical that can disrupt the endocrine system at very low concentrations. More than a hundred animal studies have linked low doses of bisphenol-A to a variety of adverse health effects such as reduced sperm count, impaired immune system functioning, increases in prostate tumor proliferation, altered prostate and uterus development, insulin resistance, alteration of brain chemistry, early puberty, and behavioral changes (vom Saal 1998; Howdeshell 1999; Sakaue 2001; Al-Hiyasat 2002; Palanza 2002; Schonfelder, 2002; Wetherill 2002; Sugita-Konishi 2003; Kabuto 2004; Della Seta 2005; Markey 2005; Porrini 2005; Timms 2005; Alonso-Magdalena 2006). Significantly, many of the studies showing adverse effects are at levels many times lower than what the Environmental Protection Agency considers safe (50 ug/kg/day).

Some basic toxicological testing has been done on BADGE, but the compound has not been extensively studied. One of the most important toxicological questions is whether BADGE breaks down into bisphenol A in the human body. Based on urinary levels of BPA in workers exposed to BADGE versus unexposed controls, researchers concluded that BADGE breaks down into BPA in the body (Hanaoka 2002). Other research has suggested that there is no such biotransformation, however (EU 2002).

Bisphenol A & Metabolites

Detected in polycarbonate plastic, dental sealants, and resins that line metal cans. Linked to hormone disruption, birth defects, cancer with effects at very low doses.

Bisphenol A & Metabolites has been found in 51 of the 70 people tested in EWG/Commonweal studies.

Top health concerns for Bisphenol A & Metabolites (References)

health concern or target organ weight of evidence
Endocrine systemstrong

Other health concerns for Bisphenol A & Metabolites (References)

health concern or target organ weight of evidence
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies)unknown

Toxicity Classifications (References)

classification governing entity/references
Endocrine disruptorHanaoka, T., N. Kawamura, et al. (2002). Urinary bisphenol A and plasma hormone concentrations in male workers exposed to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and mixed organic solvents. Occup Environ Med 59(9): 625-8.
Immune system toxicity - weight of evidence unknown/unassessedSugita-Konishi, Y., S. Shimura, et al. (2003). Effect of Bisphenol A on non-specific immunodefenses against non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Toxicol Lett 136(3): 217-27.