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Score:
Data available:
 
Fair

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PADIMATE O


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Biochemical or cellular level changes, Contamination concerns; Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Ecotoxicology, Endocrine disruption

About PADIMATE O: A derivative of the once-popular PABA sunscreen ingredient, research shows this chemical releases free radicals, damages DNA, has estrogenic activity, and causes allergic reactions in some people.

Function(s): Sunscreen Agent; Ultraviolet Light Absorber; UV ABSORBER; UV FILTER

Synoym(s): ETHYLHEXYL DIMETHYL PABA, 2-ETHYLHEXYL 4- (DIMETHYLAMINO) BENZOATE; 2-ETHYLHEXYL 4-DIMETHYL-AMINOBENZOATE; 2-ETHYLHEXYL ESTER 4- (DIMETHYLAMINO) BENZOIC ACID; 2-ETHYLHEXYL P-DIMETHYLAMINOBENZOATE; 2-ETHYLHEXYL PARADIMETHYLAMINO BENZOATE; 4- (DIMETHYLAMINO) - OCTYL ESTER BENZOIC ACID; 4- (DIMETHYLAMINO) BENZOIC ACID, 2-ETHYLHEXYL ESTER; ARLATONE UVB; BENZOIC ACID, 4 (DIMETHYLAMINO) , 2ETHYLHEXYL ESTER; BENZOIC ACID, 4- (DIMETHYLAMINO) -, OCTYL ESTER; CARALOE SNOW & SUN LIP BALM

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in some types of cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.McHugh PJ, Knowland J

Cancer

Concern Reference
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruption

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Associated with immunotoxicity or allergiesRodriguez E, Valbuena MC, Rey M, Porras de Quintana L

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Penetration enhancer
Penetration enhancerPont AR, Charron AR, Brand RM

Data gaps

Concern Reference
17,557 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Contamination concerns

Impurity Score
NITROSAMINES
Data: Fair

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
Loeppky, R. N., R. Hastings, et al. (1991). "Nitrosation of tertiary aromatic amines related to sunscreen ingredients." IARC Sci Publ(105): 244-52.
McHugh PJ, Knowland J. Characterization of DNA damage inflicted by free radicals from a mutagenic sunscreen ingredient and its location using an in vitro genetic reversion assay. Photochem Photobiol. 1997 Aug;66(2):276-81.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Pont AR, Charron AR, Brand RM. 2004. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 195(3): 348-354.
Rodriguez E, Valbuena MC, Rey M, Porras de Quintana L. 2006. Causal agents of photoallergic contact dermatitis diagnosed in the national institute of dermatology of Colombia. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 22(4): 189-192.
{Allen, 1996}
{Dunkel, 1992}
{Gomez, 2005}
{Gulston, 1999}
{Hayden, 2005}
{Knowland, 1993}
{Krishnan, 2004}
{McHugh, 1997}

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer