Menu

EWG's Tap Water Database — 2021 UPDATE

Donate

Fluoride

Whitehall Waterworks

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

145

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20140.748 ppm25250.381 ppm - 0.950 ppm
20150.737 ppm22220.600 ppm - 0.900 ppm
20160.803 ppm24240.430 ppm - 1.06 ppm
20170.740 ppm2625ND - 1.000 ppm
20180.761 ppm24240.389 ppm - 1.000 ppm
20190.825 ppm24240.700 ppm - 1.000 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2014-01-301179120010.776 ppm
2014-01-301179120010.950 ppm
2014-02-271212360010.381 ppm
2014-02-271212360010.910 ppm
2014-03-191242590010.735 ppm
2014-03-191242590010.800 ppm
2014-04-221289340010.673 ppm
2014-04-221289340010.700 ppm
2014-05-281355840010.780 ppm
2014-05-281355840010.800 ppm
2014-06-241412410010.800 ppm
2014-06-241412410010.813 ppm
2014-07-291482290010.600 ppm
2014-07-291482290010.762 ppm
2014-08-208122040.500 ppm
2014-08-261539600010.853 ppm
2014-08-261539600010.900 ppm
2014-09-231595710010.744 ppm
2014-09-231595710010.800 ppm
2014-10-291661380010.680 ppm
2014-10-291661380010.756 ppm
2014-11-281701220010.700 ppm
2014-11-281701220010.749 ppm
2014-12-021711220010.748 ppm
2014-12-021711220010.800 ppm
2015-01-211767410010.898 ppm
2015-01-211767410010.900 ppm
2015-02-191804490010.700 ppm
2015-02-191804490010.767 ppm
2015-03-241846350010.700 ppm
2015-03-241846350010.755 ppm
2015-04-141880760010.659 ppm
2015-04-141880760010.800 ppm
2015-05-191950940010.700 ppm
2015-05-191950940010.710 ppm
2015-06-232022300010.600 ppm
2015-06-232022300010.700 ppm
2015-07-232077720010.700 ppm
2015-07-232077720010.722 ppm
2015-08-262140570010.653 ppm
2015-08-262140570010.800 ppm
2015-10-272259190010.700 ppm
2015-10-272259190010.768 ppm
2015-11-092278580010.778 ppm
2015-11-092278580010.800 ppm
2015-12-142326980010.700 ppm
2015-12-142326980010.701 ppm
2016-01-122355920010.430 ppm
2016-01-122355920010.600 ppm
2016-02-162401270010.700 ppm
2016-02-162401270010.862 ppm
2016-03-072428690010.800 ppm
2016-03-072428690010.954 ppm
2016-04-122487050010.800 ppm
2016-04-122487050010.860 ppm
2016-05-172553490010.700 ppm
2016-05-172553490010.841 ppm
2016-06-212620350010.809 ppm
2016-06-212620350010.900 ppm
2016-07-202677200010.800 ppm
2016-07-202677200010.827 ppm
2016-08-292746990010.900 ppm
2016-08-292746990011.06 ppm
2016-09-262804090010.700 ppm
2016-09-262804090010.820 ppm
2016-10-252858610010.836 ppm
2016-10-252858610010.900 ppm
2016-11-212900990010.776 ppm
2016-11-212900990010.800 ppm
2016-12-012943350010.797 ppm
2016-12-012943350010.800 ppm
2017-01-242975290010.807 ppm
2017-01-242975290010.900 ppm
2017-02-213011820010.600 ppm
2017-02-213011820010.788 ppm
2017-03-133038390010.700 ppm
2017-03-133038390010.803 ppm
2017-03-229792800.510 ppm
2017-04-10308968001ND
2017-04-123096660010.800 ppm
2017-04-123096660010.840 ppm
2017-05-033136950010.834 ppm
2017-05-033136950011.000 ppm
2017-06-063203090010.800 ppm
2017-06-063203090010.810 ppm
2017-07-053262430010.700 ppm
2017-07-053262430010.802 ppm
2017-08-013326810010.781 ppm
2017-08-013326810010.900 ppm
2017-09-063404900010.700 ppm
2017-09-063404900010.814 ppm
2017-10-093485390010.400 ppm
2017-10-093485390010.480 ppm
2017-11-073532640010.766 ppm
2017-11-073532640011.000 ppm
2017-12-063580870010.803 ppm
2017-12-063580870010.900 ppm
2018-01-173635150010.800 ppm
2018-01-173635150010.853 ppm
2018-02-123666890010.809 ppm
2018-02-123666890010.900 ppm
2018-03-073701200010.797 ppm
2018-03-073701200010.800 ppm
2018-04-103758170010.389 ppm
2018-04-103758170010.400 ppm
2018-05-083810340010.600 ppm
2018-05-083810340010.793 ppm
2018-06-113879090010.771 ppm
2018-06-113879090010.800 ppm
2018-07-093930480010.700 ppm
2018-07-093930480010.807 ppm
2018-08-134007700010.754 ppm
2018-08-134007700010.800 ppm
2018-09-054054040010.777 ppm
2018-09-054054040010.800 ppm
2018-10-094136030010.700 ppm
2018-10-094136030010.747 ppm
2018-11-134198750010.930 ppm
2018-11-134198750011.000 ppm
2018-12-054228580010.700 ppm
2018-12-054228580010.843 ppm
2019-01-084270910010.785 ppm
2019-01-084270910010.900 ppm
2019-02-134314200010.800 ppm
2019-02-134314200010.908 ppm
2019-03-124352210010.700 ppm
2019-03-124352210010.778 ppm
2019-04-094398070010.800 ppm
2019-04-094398070010.840 ppm
2019-05-084451070010.800 ppm
2019-05-084451070010.829 ppm
2019-06-204532610010.795 ppm
2019-06-204532610010.800 ppm
2019-07-104570280010.800 ppm
2019-07-104570280010.869 ppm
2019-08-084625780010.800 ppm
2019-08-084625780010.800 ppm
2019-09-044678760010.911 ppm
2019-09-044678760011.000 ppm
2019-10-284788090010.700 ppm
2019-10-284788090010.909 ppm
2019-11-134815510010.800 ppm
2019-11-134815510010.934 ppm
2019-12-044845790010.741 ppm
2019-12-044845790010.800 ppm