Menu

EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

Donate

Fluoride

Waukesha Water Utility

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

162

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.950 ppm24240.790 ppm - 1.04 ppm
20130.697 ppm24240.510 ppm - 1.03 ppm
20140.607 ppm31310.360 ppm - 0.760 ppm
20150.651 ppm28280.420 ppm - 0.760 ppm
20160.700 ppm24240.590 ppm - 0.800 ppm
20170.645 ppm31310.370 ppm - 0.770 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-03IW0115700.930 ppm
2012-01-03IW0115700.980 ppm
2012-02-01IW0122490.930 ppm
2012-02-01IW0122491.01 ppm
2012-03-14IW0139190.960 ppm
2012-03-14IW0139191.02 ppm
2012-04-03IW0149460.910 ppm
2012-04-03IW0149461.000 ppm
2012-05-01IW0170550.910 ppm
2012-05-01IW0170550.950 ppm
2012-06-05IW0202240.910 ppm
2012-06-05IW0202241.04 ppm
2012-07-02IX0002680.950 ppm
2012-07-02IX0002680.980 ppm
2012-08-10IX0039460.790 ppm
2012-08-10IX0039460.980 ppm
2012-09-17IX0079720.900 ppm
2012-09-17IX0079720.980 ppm
2012-10-02IX0092800.940 ppm
2012-10-02IX0092800.970 ppm
2012-11-07IX0114190.920 ppm
2012-11-07IX0114191.01 ppm
2012-12-04IX0124980.890 ppm
2012-12-04IX0124980.930 ppm
2013-01-02IX0135320.870 ppm
2013-01-02IX0135321.03 ppm
2013-02-06IX0150280.670 ppm
2013-02-06IX0150280.850 ppm
2013-03-05IX0163660.660 ppm
2013-03-05IX0163660.860 ppm
2013-04-02IX0182820.610 ppm
2013-04-02IX0182820.700 ppm
2013-05-02707490010.629 ppm
2013-05-02707490010.740 ppm
2013-06-05775990010.666 ppm
2013-06-05775990010.750 ppm
2013-07-16863380010.641 ppm
2013-07-16863380010.720 ppm
2013-08-06904260010.599 ppm
2013-08-06904260010.730 ppm
2013-09-03949000010.510 ppm
2013-09-03949000010.600 ppm
2013-10-011019070010.596 ppm
2013-10-011019070010.720 ppm
2013-11-061083760010.601 ppm
2013-11-061083760010.700 ppm
2013-12-031120310010.596 ppm
2013-12-031120310010.680 ppm
2014-01-071154060010.534 ppm
2014-01-071154060010.740 ppm
2014-02-041186860010.431 ppm
2014-02-041186860010.670 ppm
2014-03-041222120010.486 ppm
2014-03-041222120010.690 ppm
2014-03-267767540.390 ppm
2014-03-267767560.540 ppm
2014-04-021261190010.557 ppm
2014-04-021261190010.710 ppm
2014-05-077844260.540 ppm
2014-05-077844200.560 ppm
2014-05-077844230.560 ppm
2014-05-131330830010.530 ppm
2014-05-131330830010.690 ppm
2014-06-031373820010.586 ppm
2014-06-031373820010.700 ppm
2014-06-117961010.360 ppm
2014-06-117961040.450 ppm
2014-07-011430180010.594 ppm
2014-07-011430180010.700 ppm
2014-08-051499910010.616 ppm
2014-08-051499910010.740 ppm
2014-09-161580900010.597 ppm
2014-09-161580900010.760 ppm
2014-10-071627390010.661 ppm
2014-10-071627390010.750 ppm
2014-11-111684530010.609 ppm
2014-11-111684530010.720 ppm
2014-12-021712620010.605 ppm
2014-12-021712620010.750 ppm
2015-01-131760560010.595 ppm
2015-01-131760560010.630 ppm
2015-02-031784680010.596 ppm
2015-02-031784680010.680 ppm
2015-03-031822590010.636 ppm
2015-03-031822590010.710 ppm
2015-03-108478500.550 ppm
2015-03-108478520.620 ppm
2015-03-118478540.580 ppm
2015-04-071873190010.597 ppm
2015-04-071873190010.740 ppm
2015-05-051921950010.607 ppm
2015-05-051921950010.760 ppm
2015-06-021979030010.659 ppm
2015-06-021979030010.730 ppm
2015-07-072052820010.622 ppm
2015-07-072052820010.750 ppm
2015-08-042102130010.608 ppm
2015-08-042102130010.720 ppm
2015-09-012155700010.601 ppm
2015-09-012155700010.760 ppm
2015-09-298863810.420 ppm
2015-10-062227820010.618 ppm
2015-10-062227820010.750 ppm
2015-11-032274200010.644 ppm
2015-11-032274200010.720 ppm
2015-12-012309860010.601 ppm
2015-12-012309860010.720 ppm
2016-01-052348260010.641 ppm
2016-01-052348260010.750 ppm
2016-02-022384230010.646 ppm
2016-02-022384230010.780 ppm
2016-03-022423110010.630 ppm
2016-03-022423110010.790 ppm
2016-04-192502050010.630 ppm
2016-04-192502050010.800 ppm
2016-05-242571120010.614 ppm
2016-05-242571120010.780 ppm
2016-06-132603630010.618 ppm
2016-06-132603630010.740 ppm
2016-07-082648600010.624 ppm
2016-07-082648600010.760 ppm
2016-08-162730620010.630 ppm
2016-08-162730620010.780 ppm
2016-09-072764230010.615 ppm
2016-09-072764230010.740 ppm
2016-10-252861460010.645 ppm
2016-10-252861460010.800 ppm
2016-11-082886650010.642 ppm
2016-11-082886650010.780 ppm
2016-12-142935880010.590 ppm
2016-12-142935880010.780 ppm
2017-01-042951840010.529 ppm
2017-01-042951840010.720 ppm
2017-02-032984130010.661 ppm
2017-02-032984130010.750 ppm
2017-03-143045410010.652 ppm
2017-03-143045410010.710 ppm
2017-03-289800790.590 ppm
2017-03-289800850.670 ppm
2017-03-289800820.730 ppm
2017-04-183107940010.627 ppm
2017-04-183107940010.750 ppm
2017-05-029863650.500 ppm
2017-05-029863620.620 ppm
2017-05-083149590010.593 ppm
2017-05-083149590010.770 ppm
2017-05-319945410.370 ppm
2017-05-319945380.460 ppm
2017-06-013192430010.609 ppm
2017-06-013192430010.700 ppm
2017-07-143292260010.565 ppm
2017-07-143292260010.740 ppm
2017-08-163367070010.561 ppm
2017-08-163367070010.670 ppm
2017-09-143425260010.566 ppm
2017-09-143425260010.710 ppm
2017-10-303517230010.630 ppm
2017-10-303517230010.760 ppm
2017-11-133549300010.632 ppm
2017-11-133549300010.770 ppm
2017-12-113593520010.629 ppm
2017-12-113593520010.760 ppm