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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

Chesterfield County Central Water System

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

32

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND40ND
2013ND60ND
2014ND100ND
2015ND40ND
2016ND40ND
2017ND40ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-06-05E120400841ND
2012-06-05E120400821ND
2012-06-05E120400837ND
2012-06-05E120400817ND
2013-04-23E130202509ND
2013-04-23E130202481ND
2013-04-23E130202494ND
2013-04-23E130202506ND
2013-05-14E130501440ND
2013-05-14E130501441ND
2014-03-27E140307385ND
2014-04-22E140308605ND
2014-04-22E140308573ND
2014-04-22E140308606ND
2014-04-22E140308595ND
2014-08-22E140801007ND
2014-08-22E140801008ND
2014-08-22E140801006ND
2014-08-22E140801005ND
2014-09-25E140801009ND
2015-04-23VA010-DCLSND
2015-04-23VA010-DCLSND
2015-04-23VA010-DCLSND
2015-04-23VA010-DCLSND
2016-04-25E160305675ND
2016-04-25E160305671ND
2016-04-25E160305672ND
2016-04-25E160305682ND
2017-04-19E170304726ND
2017-04-19E170304724ND
2017-04-19E170304741ND
2017-04-20E170304722ND