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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

Tempe Water Supply Corporation 1

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

25

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND20ND
2013ND60ND
2014ND30ND
2015ND60ND
2016ND40ND
2017ND40ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-29AB82330ND
2012-02-29AB82328ND
2013-02-26AC11569ND
2013-02-26AC11571ND
2013-06-14AC22213ND
2013-06-14AC22216ND
2013-06-14AC22226ND
2013-06-14AC22227ND
2014-01-15AC38992ND
2014-01-15AC38994ND
2014-01-15AC39002ND
2015-02-24AC81713ND
2015-02-24AC81699ND
2015-02-24AC81709ND
2015-02-24AC81697ND
2015-09-10AD06572ND
2015-12-03AD15456ND
2016-02-25AD25795ND
2016-02-25AD25791ND
2016-02-25AD25783ND
2016-02-25AD25785ND
2017-06-01AD86432ND
2017-06-01AD86412ND
2017-06-01AD86408ND
2017-06-01AD86426ND